Transnational Marketing Journal <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal</strong> (TMJ) is dedicated to publishing high quality contemporary research into transnational marketing practices and scholarship while encouraging critical approaches in the development of marketing theory and practice. TMJ is a journal which promotes and show-cases current research into marketing practices and challenges with an emphasis and relevance to cross border practices, issues, challenges facing marketers and researchers alike.</p> <p><strong>ISSN</strong>: 2041-4684 | <strong>e-ISSN</strong>: 2041-4692 | The abbreviated title: Transntl. Market. J.</p> <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal </strong>is published three times a year in April, August, and December.</p> <p><strong>Transnational Marketing Journal</strong> is indexed and abstracted by SCOPUS, ERIH Plus, RePEc among others.</p> en-US <p>Copyright © 2013-2021 Transnational Press London</p> (Transnational Marketing Journal) (TMJ Admin) Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 “Asymmetric Export Volatility Shock Behaviour” of Lower Middle Income (LMI) Countries in South East Asia During COVID-19 Pandemic <p><em>COVID-19 Pandemic still affecting all countries. South Asian economies and that particularly India is no exception. Because of this “uncertainty shock”, India’s GDP has contracted by 3.1percent in the last quarter of 2020. The present empirical work covers broadly the “asymmetric spillover and related noisy shocks” surrounded with trade (export) volatility about LMI nations in “two phases” i.e. in terms of considering the During pandemic phase (DC) the period from April 2019 till June 2020 and Pre-pandemic phase (PC) from April 2013 till November 2020. A comparative trade volatility asymmetries analysis were applied using a nonlinear volatility function i.e. exponential weighted moving average (EWMA), and identification of noisy behaviour after the initial post-recovery for empirical evidence. The empirical findings discovered that there were “extended” non-smooth and noisy “shock propagation” post initial recovery across two phases by the use of VAR and VECM outcomes. Bangladesh and Pakistan were stronger “Noisy shock contributors” while Nepal and Sri Lanka were turned out to be the strongest “Noisy shock receivers”. This “noisy” behaviour implies “uncertainty” and chaos on the international trade front resulting in higherthan expected volatility in trade figures and in-built destabilized momentum in the impulses. The results also relate to the possible opportunities of intra-regional trade convergence as a policy imperative. </em></p> Rohit Malhotra Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Consumers in Crisis – Emerging Marketing Challenges <p><em>The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions in the life of consumers. Consumers have started to learn and live a “new normal” lifestyle, shifting to spending only on essentials, consuming home food as compared to eating out or ordering in, increased use of technologies for shopping, education, and entertainment, and focusing on health and family. This change in the behaviour of average consumers has redefined the basics of marketing. Businesses are struggling due to lockdowns, lack of labour, tightened spending by consumers, and lack of raw materials for their operations. Working from home, consumers have started using digital technologies to search, identify, and order their bare minimum essentials. The purpose of this research paper is to evaluate how marketers should redefine their marketing strategies to adapt to changing consumer behaviour. As consumer behaviour is changing because of COVID-19, marketers need to rethink their fundamental marketing campaigns, moving away from traditional in-store marketing techniques to using digital technologies to reach consumers at their homes. This research was conducted using a structured questionnaire sent out to marketing executives. The responses received were analysed using SmartPLS. The present study provides valuable insights to the marketers on the emerging strategies that need to be adopted. Marketers should comprehend the social and economic impact of the pandemic, invest in digital technologies to reach out to customers virtually, streamline their supply chain to take advantage of localisation, offer family-oriented products, adopt short-term pricing policies, and develop alliances with competition for economies of scale.</em></p> Prof. Dr. Uday Salunkhe, Dr. D. Narasimha Murthy, Vijaya Kumar Bhima Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Click & Collect Retailing: A Study on Its Influence on the Purchase Intention of Customers <p><em>The retail sector, over the years, has evolved dramatically to provide better service to its customers. With the superior convenience of online shopping and tangible experience of in-store shopping, retail industries are looking forward to integrating both modes, thus embracing omni channel to provide better service to their customers. The prime objective of the research is to investigate the level of influence that using the Click &amp; Collect online shopping mode can have on customer purchase intention and to ascertain the effects that online and offline shopping attributes have on this intention. The study emphasizes the usefulness of integrating both the shopping modes, thus embracing omni channel in the retail sector to provide a better shopping experience to the customers. The primary data were collected from 356 respondents. Secondary data were collected by reviewing articles, research papers, extant studies and newspaper articles. In the analysis, the buying behaviour through an e-commerce platform and customers’ purchase intentions are taken as the dependent variable. Product risk, online trust, website quality, offline experience and perceived usefulness are identified as the independent variables. The data thus collected were processed for regression tests using IBM SPSS 25 software to analyse the results. The Stimulus-Organism-Response model was deployed as the proposed model for the research. The results obtained from the research will allow retailers to understand the customer's buying behaviour towards the new Click &amp; Collect system better by identifying the key variables that influence their purchase intention. </em></p> Karthik S, Kavitha R Gowda, Jayanta Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Decision Paralysis in Customers with Special Reference to Placing Order in Restaurant <p><em>Owing to the vast number of choices open to customers, they can often feel paralysed in their decision-making. Offering a wide range of options can activate the effect of Decision Paralysis, which delays the client's final decision. The impact of Decision Paralysis can prevail in restaurants. This study reveals the existence of decision paralysis among customers in restaurants when placing an order. The aim is to investigate the prevalence of Decision Paralysis among customers, with particular reference to placing an order in a restaurant and the influence on consumers’ purchase decisions. A survey questionnaire was rolled out using Google forms to customers who have experienced dining in a restaurant. A total of 416 survey responses were collected for data analysis through the convenience sampling method. It was found that, customer purchase decision has been affected by the decision paralysis effect. It was also found that customers experience a dilemma due to tremendous options or choices in the food sector by the service providers. This study was limited to restaurants and in terms of cuisine, with hotels not being considered. Hence, the main limitation is not being able to generalise the findings of this study to the whole of the food catering sector. The study will benefit both scholars and marketing practitioners in understanding the difficulty a customer faces during purchase decision-making.</em></p> Viknesh R, Kavitha R Gowda, Jayanta Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Marketing Adoption: Determinants, Level of Adoption and Its Impact on Business Performance <p><em>The purpose of this research is to investigate how women entrepreneurs are utilising digital marketing media for business marketing and what their perceptions are about digitalisation and the adoption of digital marketing. The aim is to identify the most influential determinants of digital marketing adoption amongst women entrepreneurs, their level of adoption of DM tools, and how their adoption behaviour impacts on the sales of the enterprise and, hence business performance. The findings are drawn based on primary data collected from 136 women entrepreneurs from the state of Karnataka. Hierarchical regression analysis, Somer’s D correlation Test and other descriptive statistics were used to make valid inferences to achieve the objectives of the study. Six factors (perceived expertise, enterprise readiness, perceived industry and regulatory pressure, size of the enterprise, perceived consumer pressure and perceived benefits) were revealed, strongly influencing the digital marketing adoption behaviour among women entrepreneurs. It was also found that the majority of women entrepreneurs exhibited a a low level of adoption, thus indicating that digital marketing adoption is still in its infancy. The results indicated that there was a positive impact of DM adoption level on sales and thus, it also enhanced the business performance of the enterprise.</em></p> Reema Bhagat, Soundara Rajan. R Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring the Effectiveness of Social Media in a B2B Scenario in India <p><em>Digitalisation is a global phenomenon that is a worthwhile proposition for the development of any nation’s economy. Social media contributes significantly to the development of an economy by the spreading and democratisation of information through global players, such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn etc. According to a Forbes report in 2017, these digital platforms create new ecosystems and business models for business owners and entrepreneurs. Whilst a report by Statista in 2020 states that there were 3.6 billion social media users worldwide and the number is expected to grow to 4.4 billion by 2025. Return on Investment (ROI) measurement of social media, which is a very important component for organisations to evaluate its success or effectiveness, remains a major challenge for organisations, despite number of attempts having been made by experts in the field. This study is aimed at understanding how the success and effectiveness of social media is measured in a B2B scenario. Various frameworks on social media ROI measurement are critically evaluated. Then, a tool for measuring social media ROI is developed, such that businesses will be able to evaluate their social media investments. The instrument covers 14 variables over four dimensions. The results indicate that respondents perceived organic return as the most important dimension. It is also evident that brand testament is found the least perceived dimension for measuring the social media ROI. </em></p> Krishanu Bhattacharyya, Bikash Ranjan Debata Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Empowerment Experiences of Software Professionals in Post Lockdown Information Technology Organisations <p><em>Organisations have the responsibility of not only empowering employees, but also, aiding them towards flourishing. Post lockdown (Covid-19) in Indian information technology organisations (ITOs), software professionals who experienced psychological empowerment are more likely to carry out their assignments better as well as having higher levels of trust, loyalty, employer branding and job satisfaction. Empowerment practices are expected to nurture heliotropic experiences among individuals, thus leading to their flourishing. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence in the Indian ITO context. A quantitative approach was adopted, with 200 software professionals participating in the study, aimed at investigating the correlation between psychological empowerment and flourishing. Two valid and reliable structured questionnaires were used to conduct the study using convenience sampling to identify the software professionals and stratified sampling to stratify the ITOs post lockdown (for COVID-19). Descriptive and regression analysis was performed to probe the experience of meaning, competence, self-determination and impact on flourishing. The results indicate that the software professional's experienced both psychological empowerment and flourishing. It also creates an emotional ability to enables intrinsically employees to have positive outcomes. Furthermore, the sub-dimensions self-determination and impact are found to be good predictors of flourishing even during the post-lockdown (Covid-19) period. Implications of how psychological empowerment of software professionals is important to ITO performance and accomplishment of objectives are discussed in detail. </em></p> Dr. Sunil Kumar R, Dr Harold Andrew Patrick Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Payment and Its Growth in the Time of COVID – 19 <p><em>The Indian payments landscape has undergone a makeover in the recent past with the decision to demonetise leading to a shortage of physical currency. The current COVID-19 pandemic created a contamination fear while exchanging and using currency. Hence, the customers started adopting digital payments. Research was conducted in this context to investigate the behaviour intentions of the customers regarding digital payment usage through application of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of the Technology-2 (UTAUT2) model. This paper explores the behaviour intentions of using digital payments during the pandemic. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect the required information from 271 respondents through the judgemental sampling technique. The data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS. The results revealed that, among the seven constructs examined, effort expectancy and habit had a positive effect on behaviour intentions. No association was elicited between social influence, facilitating condition and price value on behaviour intentions. The findings also uncovered a moderately significant negative relationship between performance expectancy and hedonic motivation on behaviour intentions. Compared to prior studies, the findings regarding a few constructs from our study were in line with earlier work, whilst others were found to be not so. Also, the timing of the study might have played a role in influencing the results as most of the customers felt it was convenient to use digital payments compared to physical currency during the pandemic.</em></p> Dr. S. Manoharan, Saravanan MP, Paneerselvam S Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Workforce Analytics: A Data-Driven Machine Learning Approach to Predict Job Change of Data Scientists <p><em>Today the total amount of data created, captured, and consumed in the world is increasing at a rapid rate, as digitally driven organizations continue to contribute to the ever- growing global data sphere. (Holst, Statista Report 2020). This data brings with it a plethora of opportunities for organizations across different sectors. Hence, their hiring outlook is shifting towards candidates who possess the abilities to decode data and generate actionable insights to gain a competitive advantage. A career in data science offers great scope and the demand for such candidates is expected to rise steeply. When companies hire for big data and data science roles, they often provide training. From an HR perspective, it is important to understand how many of them would work for the company in the future or how many look at the training with an upskilling perspective for new jobs. HR has the aim of reducing costs and time required to conduct trainings by designing courses aligning to the candidate’s interest and needs. In this paper, we explored the data based on features including demographics, education and prior experience of the candidates. We made use of machine learning algorithms, viz. Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, K Nearest-Neighbours Classifier, Decision Trees, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, Gradient Descent Boosting, and XGBoost to predict whether a candidate will look for a new job or will stay and work for the company. </em></p> Sohini Sengupta, Sareeta Mahendra Mugde, Renuka Deshpande, Kimaya Potdar Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between the Constructs of Green Wash, Green Consumer Confusion, Green Perceived Risk and Green Trust Among Urban Consumers in India <p><em>Increased fervour for green consumerism has resulted in the emergence of Green Marketing as an important tool in the hands of innovative marketers looking for novel ways of satisfying customers. Green Marketing approach is often used by marketers to differentiate their products from those of the competition, based on environment and sustainability related factors. However, one of the biggest downsides of Green Marketing is the emergence of the practice of ‘Greenwashing’. Often organisations claiming to be environment friendly have been found to be indulging in the unethical practice of misrepresenting facts through deceptive and exaggerated claims (Brouwer, 2016). The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of Greenwash (GW) on Green Trust (GT) through the mediating role of Green Consumer Confusion (GCC) and Green Perceived Risk (GPR) by deploying a scale developed by Chen &amp; Chang (2012). The relationship between demographic factors and the four constructs of GW, GT, GCC and GPR is also investigated. Through the deployment of a survey research design, questionnaires were administered to 325 respondents. The results of the analysis bring forth some interesting facts, including Greenwash being negatively related to Green Trust. However, our analysis – in contrast with that of Chen and Chang’s (2012) study - did not show a very strong mediating role played by GCC and GPR. This finding is very pertinent for companies either in the business of selling green products or positioning products on a green or eco-friendly plank.</em></p> Priti Saxena, Garima Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Exportation, Digital Distribution, and Penetration of K-Dramas in Turkey <p><em>South Korea has pursued a multidimensional public diplomacy strategy in which Korean television exports and capitalization have emerged as a public and commercial cultural diplomacy tool over the last two decades. This article examines the widespread influence of Korean television content, including digital serial delivery, cultural exportation, cultural interactions, and capitalization—that is, content sales, indirect advertising, and media-induced tourism. Empirical data was obtained from Turkey’s audience members using the online survey tool. As a result of the social and cultural impact, the respondents’ opinions on Korean serials are both animated and rational. The creation of audience members’ social, psychological, and cultural experiences with K-Dramas clarifies their intimacy and activeness. Unlike local or other international content, a significant number of respondents claim that Korean TV serials are not only a source of entertainment but also have profound edifying aspects. According to the results, “Cultural Proximity” and “Content Availability” are two of the most important factors in choosing Korean TV serials over foreign content. The “content availability” is based on the emergence and expansion of Streaming TV; however, in cultural proximity, similarities in family norms and values in both nations are notable. </em></p> Musa Khan, Yong-Jin Won, Nilüfer Pembecioğlu Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Brand Image and Brand Conscious on Perceived Price and Purchase Intention <p><em>In this research, the effect of brand image and brand conscious on perceived price and purchase intention are examined. The role of perceived price on purchase intention is also investigated. The sample of the research is the customers using a mobile phone in Turkey. In this study, the convenience sampling method was used which is the non-probability sampling method. According to the convenience sampling method, 450 customers were reached and 409 questionnaires were found suitable for data analysis. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS programs and the validity and reliability of the scales were tested. According to the results of the research, there was a positive relationship between brand image and perceived price and purchase intention. On the other hand, brand-conscious did not affect the perceived price and purchase intention. It was also found that there was a positive relationship between perceived price and purchase intention.</em></p> Sinan Çavuşoğlu, Bülent Demirağ, Yakup Durmaz, Gül Çıkmaz Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Deceptive Tactics Used in Online Shopping <p><em>The debate on deceptive advertising is getting more critical alongside the proliferation of the Internet and global e-commerce. This study aims to portray the nature and variances of deceptive tactics employed in online shopping sites by utilising an original database and a content analysis. Findings verified that the use of online deceptive advertising practices is common among Turkish online-shopping sites. First and foremost, the study displayed the high propensity of advertisers to omit or obscure information within the online ad content. The findings also provided empirical evidence on the correlational nature of involvement level and price with the deception levels. </em></p> Seçil Toros Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Service Climate and Personality Traits on Customer-Oriented Behaviour of Employees <p><em>Most companies in today's competitive and globalized business environment understand the importance of customer orientation. Customer orientation is mainly related to customer well-being. Research has shown that customer orientation leads to better financial performance and higher market share. The aim of this research has been to investigate the effect of service climate and personality traits on customer-oriented behavior. The standard questionnaire of Mechinda and Patterson (2011) has been used to measure the research variables. The population of the research consists of the employees of Ardabil Gas Company, which is equal to 161 subjects. Owing to the limited population, no sampling method was used and all employees were investigated. Data analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling and PLS software. The results showed that personality traits such as conscientiousness, agreeableness, extroversion and emotional stability, employees' perceived service climate, and job satisfaction have had a positive impact on customer-oriented behavior. Moreover, service climate had a mediating role in the relationship between personality traits and customer-oriented behavior.</em></p> Bagher Asgarnezhad Nouri Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Consumer Entitlement Behaviour in Confucian Culture: Empirical Findings in the Vietnamese Retail Setting <p><em>The study integrated the stimuli–organism-response (SOR) framework and the social exchange theory to explain the mechanism of consumer entitlement (CE) behavior in the retail context of Confucian culture. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined in this study in the form of two focus groups and a survey questionnaire (n = 465) administered in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, under the supervision of the Ho Chi Minh City Statistical Office. The results revealed that government regulation, store fairness and preferential treatment belong to stimuli dimensions that trigger CE behavior through organisms, such as trust, commitment and perceived quality. The study’s findings give empirical support to retailers to understand and look for the right strategy for controlling CE behavior in a Confucian-culture context.</em></p> Duy Minh Vo, Si Van Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Quality Lists of Marketing Journals: A Critical Appraisal <p><em>Journal quality lists are becoming omnipresent and omnipotent. Using the Foucauldian concept of the panopticon, this study critically assesses the proclaimed impartiality and objectivity of three of these lists. It does so by: (a) identifying the seven marketing scholars that have contributed to the construction of these three lists; and (b) implementing an analysis that is rarely used in marketing; namely, a Curriculum Vitae (CV) analysis. The names of the identified seven scholars are kept concealed as the case is not to castigate/question a specific academic, but rather to rouse the debate on the usefulness(less) of these lists. The CV analysis ascertains that the three scrutinised lists are way less impartial and objective than they may seem. This study’s results are in stark contrast with any argument advocating the impartiality and objectivity of these journal quality lists. Seen from a Foucauldian standpoint, these lists appear as panoptic power/knowledge tools.</em></p> Salim Moussa Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Branding Process and a Model Proposal for “Şile Gauze” <p><em>Brand and the branding process have been regarded as a component of cultural studies even though they are more generally seen as being a subfield of business economics. Today, it is true to say that countries, cities, destinations, as well as many prominent cultural items can become brands. Thus, the primary aim of this study is to form a model proposal for how “Şile gauze”, a local authentic product, can be branded to become competitive. Strategies regarding brand, the process of brand and brand positioning are adapted to Şile gauze and conceptual research about these components are elaborated with the aim of implementing Şile gauze branding. Focus groups were carried out with participants comprising students from marketing and fashion design departments, with a framework for the branding process of Şile gauze subsequently designed in light of the findings from the focus groups. These findings revealed that the target market of Şile gauze is women and men who are in mid-high and high-income groups, who have adopted a health and comfort oriented lifestyle. Additionally, the targeting strategy for Şile gauze preferred by both focus groups was a niche targeting one with a unique positioning in the market.</em></p> M. Yaman Oztek, Nevin Karabiyik Yerden Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Threat of Disreputable Behaviour for Esports Sponsors <p><em>This research aimed to determine if disreputable behaviour in esports is a threat to its sponsors. An exploratory design and a convergent-parallel mixed method with equal status were used. Esports sponsorship experts (N = 22) were interviewed via digital platforms and esports fans (N = 5,638) filled an online survey. Qualitative data was processed on NVivo 10 and quantitative on SPSS 25. The results showed that most experts consider disreputable behaviour as a threat to esports sponsors and roughly one-third of fans have developed negative feelings towards esports sponsors due to disreputable behaviour. The most brand-image threatening types of behaviours are corruption, illegal and unregulated gambling, and toxicity. Despite esports’ rapid growth, the field of esports sponsorships has received poor academic attention. Moreover, the findings are relevant for existing and potential sponsors wishing to understand how esports’ disreputable behaviour can damage their brands and how to proactively avoid this threat.</em></p> Bruno Duarte Abreu Freitas, Ruth Sofia Contreras-Espinosa, Pedro Álvaro Pereira Correia Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management Skills and Growth Strategies in a Post-Pandemic World <p><em>This article discusses the ten research studies that constitute the Transnational Marketing Journal (TMJ) special issue, which has the stated intent on investigating the development of management skills and growth strategies in the post-pandemic world. The ten studies collectively offer insights in this regard that are applicable for pandemic and non-pandemic situations. This special issue runs the gamut of management actions and prepares companies for the future. The proposed integrative framework in this article categorises the ten studies based on their implications on countries, companies, and consumers. Further, this article identifies and delineates future research directions that emanate from the limitations posed by the ten studies and based on topics that are not covered in this issue. Overall, this article aims to serve as a guide to understand and appreciate this special issue on a topic of vital interest.</em></p> Prof. Bharath Rajan, Prof. Dr. Uday Salunkhe Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Marketing Journal Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000