From Passport to Pennies: Theorizing the Effects of Dual Citizenship on Migrant Remittances
Keywords:Remittances, migration, reverse flows, social policy, The Migration Conference, TMC 2019
Migrant remittances are critical elements of the economic development agenda in many parts of the world. Extending dual citizenship to emigrants has been suggested as government policy to encourage and stabilize migrants’ financial transfers. This essay theorizes the causal relationship between passports and pennies, or between citizenship policies and transnational economic activities, such as remittances. It reads the conceptualizations from a grounded theory study on the effects of status passages related to citizenship, as well as findings from economic sociology into the micro-economic literature on the determinants of remittances. Based on a study of India’s diasporic membership status, the Overseas Citizenship of India, the essay shows that four principal effects—the rights, identity, naturalization and good-will effect—affect various populations differently. The conceptualizations serve to generate empirically grounded hypotheses about the relationship between economic transfers and citizenship status, as well as to understand the underlying (and sometimes competing) mechanisms.
Akbari, A.H. (2007). Propensity to naturalize and its impact on labour market performance and public coffers in the United States of America. Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis. Working Paper Series, 07(01). Vancouver Centre of Excellence.
Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge: Harvard University Pres.
Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004). An organizing framework for collective identity: Articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin, 130(1), 80-114.
Barth, F. (1969). Introduction. In idem (Ed.), Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The social organization of culture difference (pp. 9-38). Boston: Little Brown.
Bauböck, R. (2003). Towards a political theory of migrant transnationalism. International Migration Review, 37(3), 700-723.
--. (2005). Citizenship policies: International, state, migrant and democratic perspectives. Global Migration Perspectives, 19. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.
Becker, G.S. (1974). A theory of social interactions. Journal of Political Economy, 82(6), 1063-1093.
Bernheim, B.D, Shleifer, A., & Summers, L.H. (1985). The strategic bequest motive. Journal of Political Economy, 93(6), 1045-1076.
Bevelander, P., & Pendakur, R. (2012). Citizenship Acquisition, Employment Prospects and Earnings: Comparing Two Cool Countries. RSCAS Working Paper 2012/07 Robert Schuman Centre of the European University Institute, Florence.
Bloemraad, I., Korteweg, A., & Yurdakul, G. (2008). Citizenship and immigration: Multiculturalism, assimilation, and challenges to the nation-state. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 153-179.
Böcker, A., & Thränhardt, D. (2006). Multiple citizenship and naturalization: An evaluation of German and Dutch policies. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 7, 71-94.
Bommes, M., Baraulina, T., Daume, H., El-Cherkeh, T., & Vădean, F. (2007). Egyptian, Afghan, and Serbian Diaspora Communities in Germany: How Do They Contribute to Their Country of Origin? Research Paper 3-5, Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Bratsberg, B., Ragan, J.F., Jr., & Nasir, Z.M. (2002). The effect of naturalization on wage growth - A panel study of young male immigrants. Journal of Labour Economics, 20(3), 568-597.
Brubaker, R. (2005). The 'diaspora' diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 1-19.
Carling, J. (2014). Scripting remittances: Making sense of money transfers in transnational Relationships. International Migration Review 48 (Suppl s1), S218-S262. DOI: 10.1111/imre.12143
Chami, R., Barajas, A., Cosimano, T., Fullenkamp, C., Gapen, M., & Montiel, P. (2008). Macroeconomic consequences of remittances. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Chekki, Dan. (1996). Family values and family change. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 27, 409-413.
Chiswick, B.R. (1978). The effect of americanization of the earnings of foreign-born men. Journal of Political Economy, 86, 897-921.
Clemens, M., & Ogden, T. (2014). Migration as a Strategy for Household Finance: A Research Agenda on Remittances, Payments, and Development. Working Paper, 354. Washington D.C.: Center for Global Development.
Constant, A., & Massey, D.S. (2002). Return migration by German guestworkers: Neoclassical versus new economic theories. International Migration, 40(4), 5-38.
Constant, A., & Zimmermann, K.F. (2016). Diaspora economics: New perspectives. International Journal of Manpower, 37(7), 1110-1135.
De Ferranti, D., & Ody, A.J.  (2009). What can remittances and other migrant flows do for equitable development? In B.J. Merz, L. C. Chen, & P. F. Geithner (Eds.), Diasporas and Development (pp. 55-88). Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan.
De Haas, H. (2009). Mobility and Human Development. Human Development Research Paper 2009/01. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
de la Garza, R.O., & Lowell, B. L. (Eds). (2002). Sending Money Home: Hispanic Remittances and Community Development. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
DeSipio, L. (2000). Sending Money Home… For Now: Remittances and Immigrant Adaptation in the United States. Working Paper. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue.
DeVoretz, D. J., & Vădean, F. (2007). Social Relations and Remittances: Evidence from Canadian Micro Data. HWWI Research Paper, 3-6, Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Faini, R. (2006). Migration and Remittances. The Impact on the Countries of Origin. Paper presented at EUDN-AFD conference on Migration and Development, Paris, November 8, 2006.
Faist, T., & Gerdes, J. (2008). Dual Citizenship in an Age of Mobility. Washington D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.
Fitzgerald, D. (2006). Rethinking emigrant citizenship. New York University Law Review, 81(1), 90-116.
Gamlen, A. (2019). Human Geopolitics: States, Emigrants, and the Rise of Diaspora Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Garip, F., Eskici, B., & Snyder, B. (2014). Network effects in migrant remittances: Evidence from household, sibling and village ties in Nang Rong, Thailand. Paper presented at Workshop on Following the Flows Transnational Approaches to Intangible Transfers, September 19, 2014, Princeton University.
Goldring, L. (1998). The power of status in transnational social spaces. In L.E. Guarnizo, & M. P. Smith (Eds), Transnationalism from Below (pp. 165-195). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Guarnizo, L. E., Portes, A., & Haller, W. (2003). Assimilation and transnationalism: Determinants of transnational political action among contemporary migrants. The American Journal of Sociology, 108(6), 1211-1248.
Guarnizo, L.E. (2003). The economics of transnational living. International Migration Review, 37(3), 666-699.
Haller, W., & Landolt, P. (2005). The transnational dimensions of identity formation: Adult children of immigrants in Miami. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(6), 1182-1214.
Herr, P.M. (1989). Priming price: Prior knowledge and context effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(1), 67-75.
Holland, D. (1997). Selves as cultured: As told by an anthropologist who lacks a soul. In R. D. Ashmore, & L.J. Jussim (Eds.), Self and Identity: Fundamental Issues (pp. 160-190), New York: Oxford University Press.
Itzigsohn, J., & Giorguli Saucedo, S. (2002). Immigrant incorporation and sociocultural transnationalism. International Migration Review, 36(3), 766-798.
Jenkins, R. (1997). Rethinking Ethnicity. Arguments and Explorations. London et. al.: Sage Publications.
Jones-Correa, M. (2001). Under two flags: Dual nationality in Latin America and its consequences for naturalization in the United States. International Migration Review, 35(4), 997-1029.
Kapur, D. (2010). Diaspora, Development and Democracy. The Domestic Impact of International Migration from India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kasinitz, P., Mollenkopf, J., & Waters, M (Eds). (2004). Becoming New Yorkers: Ethnographies of the New Second Generation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Koinova, M. (2018). Sending states and diaspora positionality in international relations. International Political Sociology, oly008. https://doi.org/10.1093/ips/oly008.
Kuuire, V.Z., Arku, G., Luginaah, I, Abada, T., & Buzzelli, M. (2016). Impact of remittance behaviour on immigrant homeownership trajectories: An analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants in Canada from 2001 to 2005. Soc Indic Res,127, 1135-1156.
Levitt, P. (2009). Roots and routes: Understanding the lives of the second generation transnationally. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(7), 1225-1242.
Levitt, P., & Jaworsky, B. N. (2007). Transnational migration studies: Past developments and future trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 129-156.
Lucas, R. E. B., & Stark, O. (1985). Motivations to remit: Evidence from Botswana. Journal of Political Economy, 93(5), 901-918.
Massey, D.S., & Lawrence C. B. (1992). Determinants of savings, remittances, and spending patterns among U.S. migrants in four Mexican communities. Sociological Inquiry, 62(2), 185-207.
Mauss, M. (2002) . The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Oxon: Routledge.
Mazzolari, F. (2009). Dual citizenship rights: Do they make more and richer citizens? Demography, 46(1), 169-191.
Naujoks, D. (2009). Dual citizenship. The Discourse on Ethnic and Political Boundary-making in Germany. Focus Migration Policy Brief No. 14, Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Naujoks, D. (2010a). India and its diaspora. Changing research and policy paradigms. In D. Thränhardt, & M. Bommes (Eds.), National Paradigms of Migration Research (pp. 269-300). Göttingen: V&R Unipress.
Naujoks, D. (2010b). Diasporic identities - Reflections on transnational belonging. Diaspora Studies, 3(1), 1-22.
Naujoks, D. (2012). Does Dual Citizenship Increase Naturalization? - Evidence from Indian Immigrants in the U.S. Research Paper 125, Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Naujoks, D. (2013). Migration, Citizenship and Development. Diasporic Membership Policies and Overseas Indians in the United States. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Naujoks, D. (2017). The transnational political effects of diasporic citizenship in countries of destination: Overseas citizenship of India and political participation in the United States. In D. Carment, & A. Sadjed (Eds), Diaspora as Cultures of Cooperation: Global and Local Perspectives (pp. 199-221). Palgrave Macmillan.
Naujoks, D. (2020). Atypical citizenship regimes: Comparing legal and political conceptualizations. Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s40878-019-0156-0.
Naval, U. C., & Hussain, S.K. (2008). Striped Zebra: The Immigrant Psyche. New Delhi: Rupa and Co.
Niimi, Y., & Özden, C. (2006). Migration and Remittances: Causes and Linkages. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 4087. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Orozco, M., Lowell, B.L, Bump, M., & Fedewa, R. (2005). Transnational Engagement, Remittances and their Relationship to Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University.
Page, B., & Mercer, C. (2012). Why do people do stuff? Reconceptualizing remittance behaviour in diaspora-development research and policy. Progress in Development Studies, 12, 1-18.
Peters, F., Schmeets, H. & Vink, M. (2019). Naturalisation and immigrant earnings: Why and to whom citizenship matters. Eur J Population. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-019-09540-1.
Phinney, J.S. (2004). Ethnic Identity: Developmental and Contextual Perspectives. Available at www.nd.edu and archived at www.webcitation.org/66snwbOjJ.
Portes, A., Escobar, C., & Arana, R. (2008). Divided or Convergent Loyalties? The Political Incorporation Process of Latin American Immigrants in the United States. Working Paper, Center for Migration and Development, Princeton University.
Portes, A. (2016). International migration and national development. From orthodox equilibrium to transnationalism. Sociology of Development, 2(2), 73-92.
Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R.G. (2001). Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rapoport, H., & Docquier, F. (2006). The economics of migrants' remittances. In S.C, Kolm, & J. M. Ythier (Eds), Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity (Vol. 2, pp. 1136-1198). Amsterdam: Elsevier-North Holland.
Ratha, D., Mohapatra, S., Ozde, C., Plaza, S., & Shaw, W. (2011). Leveraging Migration for Africa: Remittances, Skills, and Investments. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Riddle, L., & Nielsen, T.M. (2011). Policies to strengthen diaspora investment and entrepreneurship: Cross-national perspectives. In K. Sharma, A. Kashyap, M. Montes, & P. Ladd (Eds.), Realizing the Development Potential of Diasporas (pp. 230-251). Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Roberts, K. D, & Morris, M.D.S. (2003). Fortune, risk, and remittances: An application of option theory to participation in village-based migration networks. International Migration Review, 37(4), 1252-1281.
Schuck, P. H. (2002). Plural citizenship. In R. Hansen, & P. Weil (Eds.), Dual Nationality, Social Rights and Federal Citizenship in the U.S. and Europe (pp. 61-99). New York: Berghahn Books.
Scott, K. (2006). The Economics of Citizenship: Is There a Naturalization Effect? Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis Working Paper Series, 06(06). Vancouver: Vancouver Centre of Excellence.
Shah, A.M. (1998). The family in India. Critical Essays. New Delhi: Orient Longman.
Shamsuddin, A. F. M., & DeVoretz, D. J. (1998). Wealth accumulation of canadian and foreign-born households in Canada. Review of Income and Wealth, 44(4), 515-533.
Sheffer, G. (2003). Diaspora Politics: At Home Abroad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Singh, S., Cabraal, A., & Robertson, S. (2010). Remittances as a medium of relationship and belonging. In A. Babacan & S. Singh (Eds), Migration, Belonging and the Nation State (pp 85-104). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Stark, O. (1995). Altruism and Beyond. Oxford and Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
--. (2009). Reasons for Remitting. Discussion Paper on Development Policy, 134. Bonn: Center for Development Research.
Steinhardt, M., Straubhaar, T., & Wedemeier, J. (2010). Studie zur Einbürgerung und Integration in der Schweiz: Eine arbeitsmarktbezogene Analyse der Schweizerischen Arbeitskräfteerhebung. Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Steinhardt, M. (2008). Does Citizenship Matter? The Economic Impact of Naturalizations in Germany. Research Paper, 3-13. Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Straubhaar, T., & Vădean, F.P. (2006). International migrant remittances and their role in development. International Migration Outlook SOPEMI 2006, 139-161. Paris: OECD.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research - Grounded Theory, Procedures and Techniques. Newbury et al.: Sage Publications.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel, & W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Taylor, J. E, & Wyatt, T.J. (1996). The shadow value of migrant remittances, income and inequality in a household-farm economy. Journal of Development Studies, 32(6), 899-912.
Thränhardt, D. (2008). Einbürgerung. Rahmenbedingungen, Motive und Perspektiven des Erwerbs der deutschen Staatsangehörigkeit. Bonn: Friedrich Ebert Foundation.
Tilly, C., & Zelizer, V.A. (2006). Relations and categories. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 47, 1-31.
United Nations. (2019). World Population Policy Database. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
Vădean, F.P. (2007). Citizenship Status and Remittances: Evidence from German Micro Data. Working Paper No. 89. Singapore: Asia Research Institute.
Vink, M., Schakel, A.H., Reichel D., Luk, N.C., & de Groot, G.R. (2019). The international diffusion of expatriate dual citizenship. Migration Studies, 7(3), 362-383.
Woodrow-Lafield, K. A. (2006). The Timing of Naturalization: Immigrants from Selected Major Countries of Birth. Public Policy Institute of California.
Xavier, C. (2011). Experimenting with diasporic incorporation: The overseas citizenship of India. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics,17, 34-53.
Zhou, M., & Bankston III, C.L. (2016). The Rise of the New Second Generation. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.