The Congolese diaspora and the politics of remittances
AbstractEconomic turmoil and war constitute the main engines fuelling migration in the Democratic Republic of Congo since 1980. The development of migration is accompanied by remittance transfers that impact on the country. The most common use of remittances are to satisfy basic needs and fund specific family events that can include buying land, house construction and opening businesses along with consumption (education, health…). The direct transfer of material goods, such as cars and medical & IT materials, also plays a major role. While most remittances are not used to cover investments; funding education and family wellbeing can support growth and development.
ADAAWEN, SA, and B OWUSU, 2013. North-South migration and remittances in Ghana. African Review of Economics and Finance 5(1):29-45.
BEN ALI, MS, 2016. Economic development in the Middle East and North Africa: challenges and prospects. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
BRACKING, S, and L SACHIKONYE, 2010. Migrant Remittances and Household Wellbeing in Urban Zimbabwe. International Migration 48(5):203-227.
CAMPBELL, EK, 2010. The role of remittances in Botswana: does internal migration really reward sending families? Population, Space and Place 16(2):151-164.
CASTLES, S, 2009. Development and Migration--Migration and Development: What Comes First? Global Perspective and African Experiences. Theoria: A Journal of Social & Political Theory 56 (121):1-31.
COHEN, JH, and L RODRIGUEZ, 2005. “Remittance Outcomes in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico: Challenges, Options and Opportunities for Migrant Households”, Population, Space and Place 11, 49–63
COSTIN, C, et al., 2016. What if Africa calls upon its diaspora to boost economic transformation? World Bank Blogs: 2016-12.
De BRUYN, T. and J. WETS, 2006. Remittances in the Great Lakes Region. Migration Research Series. Geneva, International Organisation for Migration.
EVERSOLE, R, 2005. "Direct to the Poor" Revisted: Migrant Remittances and Development Assistance. In Migration and Economy. L. Trager, ed. Pp. 289-322. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
FITZGERALD, D, 2008. Colonies of the Little Motherland: Membership, Space, and Time in Mexican Migrant Hometown Associations. Comparative Studies in Society and History 50(1):145-169.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 2010. IMF Country Report No. 10/77. Republic of Congo: Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative—Completion Point Document and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. Accessed July 24, 2018, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2010/cr1077.pdf
JONES-DUBE, E, 1991. The influence of entrepreneurs on rural town development in Botswana. Botswana Notes & Records 23(1):11-32.
KUSUNOSE, Y, and K RIGNALL, 2018. The long-term development impacts of international migration remittances for sending households: evidence from Morocco. Migration and Development 7(2): 1-23.
LARTEY, EK et al, 2012. Remittances, Exchange Rate Regimes and the Dutch Disease: A Panel Data Analysis. Review of International Economics 20(2):377-395.
MAINSAH, H, 2014. Young African Norwegian women and diaspora: Negotiating identity and community through digital social networks. Crossings: Journal of Migration & Culture 5(1):105-119.
MASWANA, J-C, 2005. Money, Exchange Rate, Price Links during Hyperinflationary Episodes in Developing Economies Using Hsiao’s approach to Granger non-causality test; Working Paper No. 81 Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Japan
Accessed July 24, 2018, http://www.econ.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~chousa/WP/81.pdf
MAZZUCATO, V et al, 2015. Transnational Families Between Africa and Europe. International Migration Review 49(1):142-172.
PUTZEL, J et al, 2008. Drivers of change in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The rise and decline of THE state and challenges for reconstruction, Working Paper No. 26. Crisis States Research Centre. Accessed July 24, 2018, http://www.lse.ac.uk/international-development/Assets/Documents/PDFs/csrc-working-papers-phase-two/wp26.s-drivers-of-change-in-drcongo.pdf
RATHA, D, 2003. Workers’ remittances: an important and stable source of external development finance, in Global Development Finance 2003, World Bank, Washington DC, pp. 157-175, http://www.worldbank.org/prospects/gdf2003/gdf_ch07_web.pdf
ROSSER, A, 2006. The Political Economy of the Resource Curse: A Literature Survey
IDS, Working Paper 268, Institute of Development Studies. Accessed July 24, 2018, https://www.ids.ac.uk/files/WP268.pdf
RUSSELL, SS, 1986. “Remittances from international migration: a review in perspective” in World Development, 14 (6): 677-696.
SCHIFF, M, 1994. How Trade, Aid, and Remittances Affect international Migration, Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, 1376.
SIRKECI I, COHEN, JH and RATHA, D, 2012, (Eds.). Migration and Remittances during the Global Financial Crisis and Beyond, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / International Development Association or The World Bank.
SOENEN, H, 2006. "How to Make Ice‐Cream? An Anthropological Economic Study of Remittance Practices among Congolese and Ecuadorian Migrants." Kolor 6(1): 41‐57.
STYAN, D, 2007. The security of Africans beyond borders: migration, remittances and London's transnational entrepreneurs. International Affairs 83(6):1171-1191.
SUMATA C, 2001. L'Economie Parallèle de la RDC : Taux de Change et Dynamique de l'Hyperinflation au Congo, L'Harmattan, Paris.
---2002. "Migradollars and poverty alleviation strategy issues in Congo-DRC", Review of African Political Economy (ROAPE), 93, November-December.
---2008. "Migrant remittances as a new source for development finance: The case of sub-Saharan Africa", OSSREA Bulletin, Volume V, No 1, Fabruary.
---2010. "Parallel Market for Foreign Currency and Hyperinflation: The case of Congo-Kinshasa", International J. of Trade and Global Markets, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 115-131.
THE WORLD BANK, 2015. Migration and Development Brief. April 2015.
TRAGER, L, 2005. Women Migrants and Hometown Linakges in Nigeria: Status, Economic Roles and Contributions to Community Development. In Migration and Economy. L. Trager, ed. Pp. 225-256. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
VARONA, R, 2004. “Migrant Savings and Alternative Investments (MSAI): an Empowering Strategy for Reintegration and Economic Development”, presented at the Expert Meeting. Bridging the Gap: International Migration and the Role of Migrants and Their Remittances in Development, organised by NOVIB, 9-20 November 2004, De Baak Conference Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
WILLIAMS, K, 2016. Remittances and Financial Development: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. African Development Review 28(3):357-367.