Migration Letters https://journals.tplondon.com/ml <p><a title="Migration Letters" href="https://journals.tplondon.com/ml"><em><img style="padding: 0 15px; float: left;" src="https://journals.tplondon.com/public/site/images/sirkeci/ml-cover-a.png" alt="Migration Letters" height="200" /></em></a></p> <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 <p>Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London</p> “I have a divine call to heal my people”: Motivations and strategies of Nigerian medicine traders in Guangzhou, China https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/963 <p><em>This case study explored the motivations and strategies of Nigerian medicine traders in responding to the health-care demands of co-migrants in China using observations and interview data from two Nigerian medicine traders in Guangzhou. The medicine traders initially responded to a ‘divine call’ but they shared similar economic motivations to survive, served predominantly African clientele and relied on ‘flyers’ and family networks to source for medicinal commodities between Nigeria and China. They were similar and different in certain respects and their undocumented statuses affected them in Guangzhou. The case study showed how survival pressures produced African health entrepreneurs in China.</em></p> Kudus Oluwatoyin Adebayo Femi O. Omololu Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 755 764 10.33182/ml.v17i6.963 Negotiating Multi-layered Cultural Identities: A Study of Pan-Chinese Immigrant Descendants in Belgium https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1087 <p><em>This study makes use of hybridity identity theory and the dynamic perspective of identity negotiation as a framework for exploring how pan-Chinese immigrant descendants in Belgium culturally and ethno-nationally identify themselves, how they negotiate with various ethno-national identity labels, and how they perceive differences between their immigrant parents’ heritage culture</em> <em>and the culture of Belgian host society. Ethnographic and qualitative research methods were employed to collect data from 2017 to 2019 at Sun Yat-sen heritage school in Brussels. Based on 200 hours of participant observation and 30 interviews conducted with immigrant descendants, the results indicate that cultural differences could be observed in participants’ familial and social life, including education, parenting, and lifestyle. Moreover, three vital dimensions whereby pan-Chinese immigrant descendants negotiate, perform, and situate their cultural and ethnic identity are food practices, popular cultural consumptions, and friendships. Notably, few participants identify themselves as either Chinese or Belgian; the majority espouses a dual identity and tends to place their identity “in-between” the pan-Chinese and Belgian ethnic affiliations. This study further finds that the descendants of Taiwanese immigrants find it difficult to settle their cultural and ethnic identity as they frequently struggle to establish a sense of belonging. </em></p> Hsien-Ming Lin Yu-Hsien Sung Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 765 780 10.33182/ml.v17i6.1087 Narratives of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon: Gender stereotypes and resilience in language practices https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/972 <p><em>Now in its ninth year, the Syrian crisis remains the largest humanitarian and displacement emergency of our time. Hundreds of thousands of people have lost their lives, while millions more have fled the country, undertaking exhausting journeys in search for safety in neighboring countries. However, when they arrive, challenges are far from over as they have to adapt to new ways of life. With more than one million Syrian refugees, Lebanon hosts the largest concentration of refugees per capita, globally. This study offers an in-depth look into Syrian refugees’ livelihoods and coping strategies and an attempt to explore whether gender stereotypes have been influenced by forced displacement. In this context, qualitative research was conducted between April and July 2019 with 60 Syrian refugee female heads of households in Akkar and North Lebanon, whose ages ranged from 25 to 35. The primary focus is to analyze the words and expressions used by refugee women themselves to describe the challenges and opportunities they face, both as women and as refugees, and how far these affect their gender roles. </em></p> Marya Initia Yammine Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 781 798 10.33182/ml.v17i6.972 Geographical networks of international migration https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/932 <p><em>In the globalised world, various human activities (business, migration, etc.) organise into networks, and only through these skeletons can we observe the different phenomena that take place. In response to the emergence of globalisation we need to find new, usable tools and methods for the sound measurement of such changing phenomena. Network theory is an innovative approach that can help us handle the complexity of the 21st century. However, so far it has not featured in mainstream official statistics. The international migration offers a new field, in which to harvest the results of network theory (in geographical not in sociological sense). Through the migration countries’ networks (from where and to where migrants move) I provide some of the most important tangible outcomes of network analysis in international migration statistics. The analysis of the entire migration geographical network is limited to the presentation of the main trends and characteristics.</em></p> Áron Kincses Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 799 812 10.33182/ml.v17i6.932 Customer discrimination in the fast food market: a web-based experiment on a Swedish university campus https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/873 <p><em>This paper presents the results of a study that examined customer discrimination against fictitious male and female food truck owners with Arabic-sounding names on a Swedish university campus. In a web-based experiment, students (N = 1,406) were asked, in a market survey setting, whether they thought it was a good idea that a food truck was establishing on their campus and of their willingness to pay for a typical food truck meal. Four names—male and female Swedish-sounding names and male and female Arabic-sounding names—were randomly assigned to food trucks. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic-sounding names. Participants were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by a male with an Arabic-sounding name than a male with a Swedish-sounding name.</em></p> Ali Ahmed Mats Hammarstedt Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 813 824 10.33182/ml.v17i6.873 Characteristics of migrants coming to Europe: A survey among asylum seekers and refugees in Germany about their journey https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1007 <p><em>The year 2015 was significant in the history of the EU when millions of asylum seekers and refugees from the Middle East and Africa fled to Europe. Where some European countries accept immigrants from non-EU regions, others blame migrants for taking advantage of the social systems in Europe and followed restrictive policy measures. Thus, everyone speaks about migrants, but not with migrants. The article examines the characteristics of asylum seekers and refugees and their motives for coming to Europe. Over 100 interview-based surveys were conducted in this study. The findings of the paper show who these people are and from where they originated. Furthermore, there is evidence supporting the hypothesis that the majority of people flee because of severe danger (e.g., armed conflicts) and are not ‘economic migrants’ despite the claims of nationalistic governments in the EU.</em></p> Sebastian Paul Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 825 835 10.33182/ml.v17i6.1007 Performing gender in the diaspora: Turkish women in North London https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/984 <p><em>This article explores the first and second-generation Turkish women gender identity construction in North London. I argue that their social experience of gender in the homeland and that in the diaspora are in conflict, because of their different background life. They can feel the differences while they are performing women’s gender identity. Also, their media consumption is analysed as this shows their sense of belonging. This reveals that their gender identity construction develops over time. In other words, changes in gender identity are gradual. For this study, the in-depth interview method was used and interviews were conducted in North London. The analysis has been covered under five different titles.</em></p> Vildan Mahmutoglu Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 837 852 10.33182/ml.v17i6.984 The 3x1 Program for migrants in Mexico: Boom, decline, and the risks of the disappearance of transnational institutionalized philanthropy https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1076 <p><em>During 2002 the 3x1 program is established at a national level for migrants of community projects based on collective remittances from migrant organizations and the three levels of the Mexican government, which allowed the institutionalization of the migrant Mexican philanthropy and the impulse for the growth of those organizations in the United States and the funding of over 29,000 community projects with basic infrastructure (water, electricity, sewer system, streets, roads, clinics, schools, and scholarships) from 2003 to 2019. In this paper, we will study the evolution of the program, the debate in what refers to its functioning, as well as its impact, and the possible consequences of its budget exclusion during 2020 with the disappearance of transnational institutionalized philanthropy, through this program, analyzing recent research in several Mexican states.</em></p> Rodolfo García Zamora Selene Gaspar Olvera Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 853 860 10.33182/ml.v17i6.1076 Front Matter https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1238 Migration Letters Copyright (c) 2020 Transnational Press London 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 Lin, Tony Tien-Ren (2020) Prosperity Gospel Latinos and Their American Dream https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1178 <p class="31stParaTitle"><em><span lang="EN-US">In this nuanced ethnography of Latinx migrants in the United States, Tony Tian-Ren Lin presents a thick description of those drawn to Prosperity Gospel Pentecostalism (PGP). The monograph opens with thorough yet concise introductions to the origins of the PGP movement in the US and its contours among Latinx communities. Readers are given a crash course in the primary assumptions and patterns of praxis espoused by PGP adherents, which are oriented around the formulaic pursuit of blessing via a combination of faith and action. </span></em></p> Eric M. Trinka Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 861 862 10.33182/ml.v17i6.1178 Hülya Kaya (2020). The EU-Turkey Statement on Refugees: Assessing its Impact on Fundamental Rights https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1159 <p><em>European countries, including Turkey, have a long history of immigration. Nevertheless, especially for Turkey, the number of irregular migration and international protection applications is increased significantly since 2016. After 2014, extraordinary numbers of irregular migrants and international protection applicants have moved to Turkey including individuals from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. Although new migrants have been mostly registered under international temporary protection, there have been discussions about Turkey being safe third country or a country of insecurity (meaning source country for migration).</em><a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2"></a></p> Deniz Yetkin Aker Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 17 6 863 864 10.33182/ml.v17i6.1159