Migration Letters https://journals.tplondon.com/ml <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 <p>Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London</p> Beyond symbolic policy making: The Copenhagen School, migration, and the marked-unmarked analogue https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1136 <p><em>This article problematizes the securitization of migration through symbolic policy discourse. Policy as discourse is not innocent. It creates not only instrumental outcomes, but can also signal deeply ideological and profound, symbolic meanings. This study discusses Germany’s controversial ANKER Center policy as a form of such symbolic signaling. Distinguishing between negative and positive securitization, this article then brings into focus the non-linear, non-fixed, political, and social construction of these two forms of securitization in the context of migration. Framed in part by the author’s ongoing field work with migrant organizations and volunteer groups in southern Germany, this article draws specific attention to a discursive marked-unmarked asymmetry. It then applies the sociologists’ method of ‘marking everything’ as a strategy to ‘write against’ securitization’s negative logic—toward a positive, more inclusive migration agenda. </em></p> Sabine Hirschauer Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 367 380 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1136 Fertility potential and child benefits questioned: Polish migration in the UK and changes of family policies in Poland. https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1165 <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><em>This paper presents the discussion about evaluating and using „migrating fertility” potential as a useful approach for designing and implementing pro-natalist and family policies which may play significant role in managing migration processes especially in the context of low fertility in European countries. The analysis presented in the article is based on pilot empirical study conducted in the UK </em></span><em>in 2017 and 2018. The aim was to capture the views of migrants who have been staying in the UK for several years on the </em>“<em>Family 500+” fertility-boost financial aid program introduced in Poland in 2016. A critical aspect of the adopted approach is the inclusion in the analysis of future demographic trends the fertility potential of those who emigrated from their home country, a factor often underestimated in migration studies. The results of the study, which was conducted shortly after the launch of the Program, clearly indicate that the new child benefit is not the only decisive factor for Polish migrants, and therefore they are not necessarily eager to return to their home country despite the new pro-family policy.</em></p> Jakub Isański Michał Michalski Krzysztof Szwarc Renata Seredyńska-Abou Eid Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 381 399 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1165 Canadian’s attitudes toward immigration in the COVID-19 era https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1232 <p><em>Canada depends on immigration for economic and demographic growth. But fears of COVID-19 and attempts to control its spread have resulted in governments closing borders and/or restricting immigration. Concurrently, increased discrimination against people from Asia, and immigrants in general, has been observed. Based on a national survey, this paper examines whether Canadian’s attitudes toward immigration have shifted with the pandemic. Results suggest that Canadians have concerns regarding immigration and would prefer to see immigration numbers reduced. Increased racism and discrimination directed toward immigrants and racialized individuals is also noted.</em></p> Bruce Newbold Olive Wahoush Sarah Wayland Yudara Weerakoon Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 401 412 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1232 Inter-country variations in COVID-19 incidence from a social science perspective https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1254 <p><em>COVID-19 has spread unevenly among countries. Beyond its pathogenicity and its contagious nature, it is of the utmost importance to explore the epidemiological determinants of its health outcomes. I focus on the thirty-six OECD member states and examine country-level characteristics of the timing of the coronavirus outbreak and its morbidity and case-fatality rates. I harvested data on dependent variables from daily WHO reports and information on the independent variables from official publications of major world organizations. I clustered the latter information under three rubrics—socio-demographic, risk behaviours, and economic and public health—and subjected the totality of the data to OLS regressions. Independent variables successfully explain much of the overall variance among OECD countries in morbidity (R<sup>2</sup>=50.0%) and mortality (R<sup>2</sup>=41.5%). Immigration stock enhanced the outbreak of the pandemic in host countries; it did not, however, had a significant effect neither on morbidity nor on mortality rates. Country economic status and healthcare services are significant in moderating the health outcomes of coronavirus infection. Nevertheless, the paramount determinants for restraining contagion and mortality are governmental measures. I speculate that this may reshape the equilibrium between push and pull factors hence, the international migration system in near future.</em></p> Uzi Rebhun Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 413 423 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1254 The Diaspora Network of ASEAN-5: Centrality Analysis and Implication on Diaspora Engagement https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1035 <p>The highly skilled diasporas (HSDs) are increasingly recognised as the critical resources of the economic development of their home countries. Many countries have implemented diaspora engagement initiatives to outreach and connect with their HSDs. However, there is lack of understanding of the mechanism on how to tap the economic opportunities from the destinations of the HSDs. Using a novel approach based on the centrality metrics of social network analysis (SNA), this study quantitatively assessed the capabilities of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand (ASEAN-5) to engage their HSDs through the global diaspora network (GDN). It was found that Thailand and Philippines are relatively more capable to channel overseas economic opportunities from heterogeneous destinations due to stronger connectivity in the GDN. The difference in connectivity suggests that ASEAN-5 should complement each other by establishing a collaborative platform to pool together the expertise and transnational networks of their HSDs.</p> Kuk Fai Fok Ming Yu Cheng Hoi Piew Tan Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 425 438 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1035 A Survey on the mental health of unaccompanied women refugees in Moria Camp, Greece https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/939 <p><em>A survey concerning the mental health of unaccompanied women (women who have immigrated alone or with their minor children illegally) was conducted in the currently biggest refugee camp in Greece on the island of Lesvos. A form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used as the main screening tool of the wellbeing of 69 females. Results showed that these women reported having symptoms of bad health, anxiety, sleeping disorders and depression in a greater degree than their usual status before coming to the camp. Results differ by ethnicity. Women from sub-Saharan Africa seem to be more vulnerable than other ethnic groups, while Somalian women are the most resilient ethnic group, since they did not show critical symptoms in any of the examined health issues. Differences in health-related issues between ethnic groups proved statistically significant. On the other hand, age and duration of stay in the camp, although altered to some degree the results, did not make any statistically significant difference. </em></p> Vasilis S Gavalas Maryam Shayestefar Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 439 451 10.33182/ml.v18i4.939 Arancini, identity, and the refugee debate in Sicily https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1386 <p><em>In August of 2018, the Italian national government prohibited North African passengers onboard the Diciotti from disembarking in Catania, Sicily. The ship had docked amid an ongoing debate over how Italy should respond to an increasing number of immigrants and refugees arriving to the nation’s shores. Pro-migrant Sicilians came to the dock wielding arancini--fried rice balls--which are emblematic of the island's history and culture, as a way to symbolically welcome the migrants onboard the Diciotti. Nationalist Sicilians came as well to counter-protest the pro-migrant group. This paper asks first, who are the opposing groups (pro-migrant and nationalist Sicilians) and why did they adopt arancini? Second, how does arancini become a symbol of welcome and at the same time inhospitality? Third, how does the encounter become a stage for the larger debate over the meaning of identity in Sicily? By shifting the focus towards the host population and how it contests the meanings of such important local symbols, we capture the complexities of reception and debates over how natives perceive and receive migrants.</em></p> Enzo Zaccardelli Jeffrey H. Cohen Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 453 462 10.33182/ml.v19i4.1386 Notion of Belonging in the Nation-State: Gendered Construction of International Migration Aspirations among University Students in Bangladesh https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1158 <p><em>Migration is not a new phenomenon, yet migration aspirations need to be studied carefully. This research looks into the gendered constructions of migration aspirations among university students. Bangladesh as a nation-state plays a pivotal role to construct gender specific migration propensities. Prevailing gender relations influence migration dynamics at macro, meso and micro-level. Consequently, girls have often different reasons for migration aspirations than their counterparts. This study finds that young men aspire to go abroad for better employment opportunities and standard livelihood, while young women tend to do so for personal security and secured life. Mostly, informants are found dissatisfied and frustrated about the state and fellow citizens. </em></p> Humayun Kabir Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 463 476 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1158 The COVID-19 pandemic and migrant entrepreneurship: Responses to the market shock https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1400 <p><em>The economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic reinforced existing inequalities in the business market. Typically facing numerous structural constraints, during the ongoing crisis migrant entrepreneurs appear to be at greatly heightened risk. Applying Davidsson’s and Gordon’s (2016) classification of crisis responses to the realm of migrant entrepreneurship, the current article intends to shed some light on what coping strategies are used by self-employed migrants when economic shocks arise. Four types of responses, namely, disengagement, delay, compensation, and adaptation, as well as their combination were identified in business practices of African entrepreneurs in Finland. The responses prove to be tightly linked to disrupted transnational business networks, limitations of technological solutions, and restricted access to funding and assistance.</em></p> Ekaterina Vorobeva Léo-Paul Dana Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 477 485 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1400 Peaks and pitfalls of multilevel policy coordination: The South American Conference on Migration https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1234 <p><em>Regional Consultative Processes (RCPs) have become a central component of migration governance; these are the loci of interstate migration policy discussions. Currently, 15 RCPs meet worldwide in every region, except the Caribbean, to form non-binding agreements and to coordinate migration policy approaches. Building on previous reports, migration governance literature, and existent thematic analyses specific to the region, we evaluate RCPs’ multilevel migration policy coordination by comparing national laws to regional topics and accords. We compare two decades of national legislation in all 12 South American countries to regional discussion at the South American Conference on Migration (SACM) since its first annual meeting in 2000. We find synergies and discrepancies between translating regional migration governance strategies from the RCP into national-level migration management. The SACM has reinforced the member states’ focus on regional integration and provided a space for dialogue to agree on approaches and best practices. Yet, countries have not uniformly incorporated these into national legislation. Our multilevel analysis reveals the complexities that RCPs face in overcoming regional-national discrepancies in immigration policy coordination.</em></p> Victoria Finn Cristián Doña-Reveco Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 487 496 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1234 Editorial https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1600 <p><em>It has been 18 months since we first heard of a new corona virus outbreak identified in Wuhan, China. Migration Letters was among the first academic journals opening pages for discussions and analyses of the pandemic and its relevance to our field of study.&nbsp;This pandemic, like many other crises, has changed -and continue to change- our lives substantially. Dedicating more resources, and in our case, more pages and effort to continue the scholarly debate on COVID-19 is imperative. For many of us this is not just for the metric appeal of publishing research on a novel topic but more importantly for being genuinely interested in understanding and offering informed advice to the public and policy makers in such a difficult time. Since early 2020, we have received dozens of submissions dealing with the pandemic and migration. About 15 of these have been published in the last six issues. We include several more in the current issue and will continue to encourage and foster scholarly exchange on COVID-19 and migration. We encourage and invite colleagues to submit their work on the pandemic and migration nexus and progress this debate because it simply means massive changes in all domains of life with effects on human mobility.</em></p> Ibrahim Sirkeci Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4 365 366 10.33182/ml.v18i4.1600 Front Matter https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1688 <p>Migration Letters, Volume 18 No 4, July 2021</p> Migration Letters Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Press London 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 18 4