Migration Letters https://journals.tplondon.com/ml <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 <p>Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London</p> Editorial https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1891 <p>Discourses of a global pandemic threat have marked 2020 and 2021. In the process, inequalities and increasing social fragmentation in health, technology, education and employment have deepened. Global risks and uncertainties have been part of the agenda for two years. Ironically not the acceleration of mobility, but extreme restrictions by national and international bodies over population movements have been apparent and linked to biosecurity concerns. Thus, biosecurity and spread of viruses have become some key topics for discussing human mobility practices and strategies. Dealing with security issues with risks and uncertainties can be likened to walking through a maze that dynamically changes depending on the level of effort.</p> Pınar Yazgan Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 497 498 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1891 Front Matter https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1893 <p>About Migration Letters</p> Migration Letters Copyright (c) 2021 Transnational Press London 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 Book Reviews: Kahe Gaile Bides, Why Did You Go Overseas?: On Bhojpuri Migration Since the 1870s & Contemporary Culture in Uttar Pradesh & Bihar, Suriname & the Netherlands https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1892 <p><strong>Kahe Gaile Bides, Why Did You Go Overseas?: On Bhojpuri Migration Since the 1870s &amp; Contemporary Culture in Uttar Pradesh &amp; Bihar, Suriname &amp; the Netherlands, </strong>edited by Mousumi Majumder, Allahabad, Spot Creative Services Mango Books, 2010, 184 pp., Rs 475 (hardcover), ISBN 978-81-906804-3-1</p> Neha Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 601 603 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1892 Why Do Foreign PhD Students Return Home? https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1490 <p><em>Amid concerns about a “brain drain” from less-developed to developed economies, one issue that arises is the role of doctoral students from these countries enrolling in universities in developed economies and then staying (as opposed to returning and bringing their enhanced human capital home). Developed economies may also be concerned with their young scholars remaining abroad post-PhD. Examining confidential micro-data from the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Earned Doctorates from 2001-2016, this paper explores the determinants of the return decision, based on a sample of more than 100,000. There is clear support for the view that new PhDs with large amounts of graduate student debt and limited family resources are more likely to return home. Financial considerations seem especially important in the return decision facing students from developing countries not graduating from the most elite US institutions. </em></p> Robert Feinberg Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 499 506 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1490 Italy’s Health Divide https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1645 <p><em>Restrictive migration policies often have a major impact on migrants’ access to healthcare services and their capacity to protect their health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, securitised migration policies in Italy led to a severe health divide that exacerbated the already acute living conditions of many migrant communities. This article examines Italy’s migration policy with a focus on the Security Decree and its consequences during the COVID-19 state-wide lockdown. Over the last decade, the surge in support for anti-immigration parties has fostered the portrayal of migrants as dangerous vectors of disease. In 2018, the Italian government approved the Security Decree which curtailed the already poor medical and sanitary conditions of the state’s healthcare services provided to migrants and asylum seekers. This study outlines the characteristics of the Italian health divide during the COVID-19 outbreak and suggests a link between securitised migration policies and increased vulnerability of migrant communities during the pandemic.</em></p> Sebastian Carlotti Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 507 518 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1645 Collective (Mis)Representation of U.S. Immigration Laws https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1269 <p><em>This paper examines historic federal immigration policies that demonstrate how the United States has rendered entire groups of people living inside and outside of its territory as outsiders. Collective representations like the Statue of Liberty suggest that the U.S. is a nation that welcomes all immigrants, when in reality, the U.S. has historically functioned as a “gatekeeper” that excludes specific groups of people at different times. The concurrent existence of disparate beliefs within a society’s collective consciousness influences the public’s views toward citizenship and results in policy outcomes that contrast sharply from the ideal values that many collective representations signify. As restrictive immigration controls are refined, insight into how immigrant exclusion via federal policy has evolved is necessary to minimize future legislative consequences that have the potential to ostracize current and future Americans.</em></p> Stephanie Pedron Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 519 532 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1269 Especially Vulnerable Subjects and Categories in the Context of European Migration: Theoretical Regulatory Challenges https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/991 <p><em>While vulnerability and migration are boundary concepts, they have been employed as if they were somewhat neutral and univocal. Based on the umbrella theory of the vulnerability turn, the specialist doctrine has focused its critical analyses on the legal-political dimensions of the different vulnerable subjects and groups. However, migrant vulnerability has a unique impact on the regulatory field of asylum, especially given its ambiguity and lack of legislative harmonisation across EU Member States. A review of the mechanisms for identifying and protecting migrant vulnerability can provide regulatory evidence regarding the different phases of the Common European Asylum System, which in turn can lead to proposals for its reform. This study will analyse the complex and questionable use of the category of ‘vulnerable migrant’ in the main international instruments of legal protection when applied to asylum seekers. It will then present a critical comparative analysis of the national and EU asylum framework. </em></p> Encarnación La Spina Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 533 549 10.33182/ml.v18i5.991 Community-Based Education Practices in Resettlement: Insights from the Blacksburg Refugee Partnership https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/910 <p><em>Education is a key component of the processes refugees undertake to (re)establish their lives in their new communities. In many cases too, displaced individuals have had interruptions in their education paths. In the United States context, nonprofit and community organizations provide essential services to supplement publicly funded resettlement and educational programs. The Blacksburg Refugee Partnership (BRP) has been filling service provision gaps in Southwest Virginia for a group of resettled refugee households since late 2016. BRP provides tutoring, English as a Second Language (ESL) training, and summer supplemental programming. Based upon an interview with BRP’s Education Coordinators and a survey of leaders and volunteers in September 2018, this article explores the organization’s work, connecting it to challenges and opportunities similar education initiatives encounter. I organize research results around three primary themes: the benefits of resettlement in a “college town” and the importance of leveraging university resources; the complexity of volunteer-led programming; and the need for comprehensive services to facilitate students’ education. I conclude by sketching the implications of this case for other educational initiatives serving refugees. </em></p> Jared A Keyel Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 551 – 561 551 – 561 10.33182/ml.v18i5.910 Angels of Denial https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1339 <p><em>This paper critically analyzes a June 2018 Trump administration press conference, carried out in response to public outcry over U.S. policies designed to separate migrant children from their parents. The press conference featured a large group of so-called “angel parents” – the parents of children who were killed by undocumented immigrants – who argued that because they are permanently separated from their children, they have it worse than parents who had their children taken away by the U.S. government. Despite the speakers being relatively diverse, qualitative analysis of their speeches reveals a rhetoric that coincides with the ideology of white injury (Cacho, 2000). I account for this using the concept of racial transposition (HoSang &amp; Lowndes, 2020), which suggests that such multiculturalism actually helps right-wing movements create a façade of racial innocence as they further deny state violence, criminalize migrants, and justify tough-on-migration policies. </em></p> Jamie Longazel Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 563 571 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1339 Immigration and Voting Patterns in the European Union https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/943 <p><em>Tempers flared in Europe in response to the 2015 European Refugee Crisis, prompting some countries to totally close their borders to asylum seekers. This was seen to have fueled anti-immigrant sentiment, which grew in Europe along with the support for far-right political parties that had previously languished. This sparked a flurry of research into the relationship between immigration and far-right voting, which has found mixed and nuanced evidence of immigration increasing far-right support in some cases, while decreasing support in others. To provide more evidence to this unsettled debate in the empirical literature, we use data from over 400 European parties to systematically select cases of individual countries. We augment this with a cross-country quantitative study. Our analysis finds little evidence that immigrant populations are related to changes in voting for the right. Our finding gives evidence that factors other than immigration are the true cause of rises in right-wing voting.</em></p> Ethan J Grumstrup Todd Sorensen Jan Misiuna Marta Pachocka Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 573 589 10.33182/ml.v18i5.943 Effects of Migration Experience on Labour Income in Turkey https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1325 <p><em>A significant number of migrants return to their home country every year, and these returnees with migration experience join the labour force. This study investigates the effect of migration experience on labour income applying regression analysis to data from the Household Labour Force Surveys of Turkey from 2009 to 2018. The findings confirm that migration experience has a positive impact on labour income in Turkey. Furthermore, the returnees earn more than the overall wage earners with the same education and skill levels. Additional findings show that women in Turkey earn less than men across all wage earners in the average, but that migration experience does not close the earnings gap between female and male returnees. Nevertheless, highly-educated and upskilled returnees contribute more to the economic growth of Turkey; so, the returnees are labour capital gains to improve the home country economy.</em></p> Selda Dudu Teresa Rojo Copyright (c) 2021 Migration Letters 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 18 5 591 600 10.33182/ml.v18i5.1325