Migration Letters https://journals.tplondon.com/ml <p><a title="Migration Letters" href="https://journals.tplondon.com/ml"><em><img style="padding: 0 15px; float: left;" src="https://journals.tplondon.com/public/site/images/sirkeci/ml-cover-a.png" alt="Migration Letters" height="200" /></em></a></p> <p><strong>Migration Letters</strong> is an international leading scholarly journal for researchers, students, scholars who investigate human migration as well as practitioners and quick dissemination of research in the field through its letter type format enabling concise sharing of short accounts of research, debates, case studies, book reviews and viewpoints in this multidisciplinary field of social sciences. Migration Letters is the first-ever letter-type journal in migration studies launched in 2004. It is following a strict double-blind peer review policy for research articles. <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November.</p> <p>ISSN: 1741-8984 | e-ISSN: 1741-8992 | The abbreviated title of Migration Letters journal is: Migrat. Lett. | <strong>Migration Letters</strong> is abstracted and indexed widely including by SCOPUS and Web of Science.</p> Transnational Press London en-US Migration Letters 1741-8984 Micro-level Initiatives to Facilitate the Integration of Resettled Refugees https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/830 <p><em>Integration, a two-way process involving refugees and the host population, is a politically contentious issue. Successful integration of newcomers in a receiving community is required to create a cohesive society. Yet, there is still little understanding of how integration strategies are employed at a community level. This paper explores how micro-level activities such as education in local schools, lifelong learning and community activities delivered within the council area influence integration of refugees. It is based on a case study of one of the Scottish councils which decided to welcome Syrian refugees in 2015 and had no prior experience of refugees’ relocation. The findings showed the role of micro-level initiatives in the successful integration and proved that even a council with no prior experience of relocating refugees could build a cohesive community upon their arrival.</em></p> Piotr Teodorowski Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 569 581 10.33182/ml.v17i5.830 Labour Market Impact of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: The View of Employers in Informal Textile Sector in Istanbul https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/891 <p><em>In less than a decade, Turkey has become home to some 4 million Syrians due to the bloody conflict across much of its southern border. That only a fraction of those refugees live in designated camps with the overwhelming majority spread about the country has led to hostile sentiments among some natives who blame Syrians for taking away their jobs. Still, research about the impact of Syrians on Turkish labour market outcomes is too limited. Empirical findings analysing micro-level data find either no impact or just abysmall changes to natives’ formal employment rates but rather declines in rates of informal employment. This paper presents the findings of a three-month fieldwork in Istanbul’s informal textile sector. Looking at the issue from the view of employers, it shows that “on average” country-level findings of the empirical analysis might be quite simplifying and sometimes inconsistent depending on the context. By just looking at the issue in a specific/neighbourhood setting, namely informal textile sector in a rather homogenous urban neighbourhood where the main competition in jobs are between Kurds and Syrians, this study shows that employment rates of natives declined in that specific field due to other factors independent of the Syrians. </em></p> Aysegul Kayaoglu Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 583 595 10.33182/ml.v17i5.891 Integration Measures within the Reform of the Common European Asylum System: The Unsolved Limbo of Asylum Seekers https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/845 <p><em>The European Union has proved to be ineffective in covering the needs of millions of people who seek asylum, while trying to satisfy the security claims of the Member States. The EU institutions have decided to reform the Common European Asylum System to coordinate the procedures, requirements, and conditions for acceptance, aiming to harmonise the national legislative frameworks. One of the most notorious aspects is the extension of the integration measures and conditions to asylum seekers. Nonetheless, the new rules still fail to offer a solution for those asylum requests that are going to be denied after long waiting periods even if the applicants have benefited from the integration programs. In order to avoid such legal implications for the long-term asylum seekers, this article encourages the EU institutions to adopt an ultimate solution, even if a bit creative, that would be coherent with the goals of the CEAS reforms.</em></p> Laura García-Juan Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 597 608 10.33182/ml.v17i5.845 Hukou System, Horizontal, Vertical, and Full Job-Education Mismatch and Wage Progression among College Floating Population in Beijing, China https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/949 <p><em>This article investigates college graduates in Beijing, China, and asks, First: Whether college graduates without local hukou are prone to educational mismatch? Second: What role does the hukou system play in the educational mismatch? And third: Whether college graduates without local hukou are willing to lower their wages in order to get a hukou? I use the Beijing College Students Panel Survey (BCSPS), and multinomial logit models and the linear regression analyses are conducted. I find that college graduates with (without) local hukou through job are more likely to be vertical and full mismatch than locals, and those </em><em>who</em><em> obtain a hukou through job have a higher full mismatch. After considering the educational mismatch, there is no significant difference in monthly wages between college graduates (not) having a hukou by work and locals.</em></p> Donghong Xie Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 609 620 10.33182/ml.v17i5.949 Spending Level of Displaced Population Returned to La Palma, Cundinamarca (2018): A Machine Learning Application https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/693 <p><em>This research aims to know the variables allowing to predict the spending level of the displacement victims that returned to La Palma, Cundinamarca. For this purpose, a measurement instrument was divided into four sections: characterisation of the population, restitution of economic rights, patterns of economic distribution and, finally, social innovation initiatives. We applied the instrument to 100 participants, and we use different Machine Learning algorithms to know the variables that allow predicting the level of expenses of the displacement victims that returned to La Palma, Cundinamarca. The findings permitted to observe that, at the aggregate level, the Random Forest and the SMV have a prediction capacity higher than 84%.</em></p> Jenny-Paola Lis-Gutiérrez Mercedes Gaitán-Angulo Jenny Cubillos-Diaz Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 639 649 10.33182/ml.v17i5.693 From Total Dependency to Corporatisation: The Journey of Domestic Work in the UAE https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/702 <p><em>Migrant domestic work has played complex, dynamic, and multilevel roles in the evolution of families, and the corporatisation of domestic work across the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, particularly the United Arab Emirates (UAE). With the increasing globalisation process in the UAE, migrant domestic work has not only deepened families’ critical dependency towards domestic work, but also influenced the state’s logic to institutionalise reforms to control, govern, and corporatise domestic works sector in recent years. Using primary and secondary literature sources, this article examines the historical and contemporary evolution of migrant domestic work in the UAE and of the GCC region. It argues that the UAE’s domestic work sector has historically transformed from informally structured sector—heavily dependent on the sponsorship of local family structures—to emerging corporatised sector across the UAE labour market. This article presents empirical and theoretical contributions because it highlights the evolving corporatised approach of the state in managing and governing domestic work and its impacts on local family structures in the UAE.</em></p> Rima Abdul Sabban Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 651 668 10.33182/ml.v17i5.702 Recruitment Strategies Used by Mexican Sex Traffickers https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/754 <p><em>This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in-depth interviews with 43 Mexican sex traffickers, analyses the strategies used by sex traffickers to recruit women from Mexico and Central America demanded by the US illegal sex industry. We conclude that trafficking is a demand-led industry. Traffickers recruit vulnerable women from Mexico and Central America who fit with US procurers’ requirements. Foreign girls smuggled into the United States should be young (in many cases underage girls), beautiful, slim and healthy. Mexican sex traffickers’ job is to entice with salaries in US dollars impoverished Latin American girls who do not want to migrate or enter prostitution. Maintaining trafficked women captive against their will is more time consuming and less profitable than wining women’s will with a salary</em></p> Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 669 679 10.33182/ml.v17i5.754 What Money Can’t Buy: Educational Aspirations and International Migration in Ecuador https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1002 <p><em>This article studies how educational aspirations of children are shaped in Biblián, Ecuador, a traditional sending country. Data sources were a multi-level survey and semi-structured interviews that were analysed using logistic regression and thematic analysis, respectively. Several theoretical relationships are confirmed: the household socioeconomic status, caregiver’s educational aspirations and age are the most important variables that predict the educational aspirations of children. Child migratory dreams and the absence of the father or the mother only predict the educational aspiration of getting a high school degree, but do not predict the aspiration of a graduate degree. Thematic analysis suggests that, besides seeing education as a means to have higher incomes, mothers perceive it as a sign of social status and assign it an intrinsic value.</em></p> Paúl Arias-Medina María-José Rivera Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 681 693 10.33182/ml.v17i5.1002 How Can Migrants’ Language Proficiency Be Measured? A Discussion of Opportunities and Challenges When Studying the Impact of Language Skills on Social Position https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/803 <p><em>Language proficiency is crucial for migrants’ social position in the labour market and therefore plays a key role in the (re-)production of social inequalities in modern societies. There are different ways of capturing language skills in quantitative studies. However, it is important to question the extent to which existing language measures mirror migrants’ realities and relevant linguistic everyday life practices. In our paper, we contribute to this question by disentangling various measures of language proficiency. We use a large sample of migrants in Germany (GSOEP) that contains numerous language measures. We conduct detailed quantitative analyses on how various language variables influence migrants’ social position, by which we mean migrants’ socioeconomic status (as measured by ISEI). The ISEI is mainly based on occupation, but also on education and income. Our findings indicate that especially the self-assessed German speaking proficiency is an important and parsimonious predictor for migrants’ social position in Germany</em>.</p> Isabell Diekmann Joanna Jadwiga Fröhlich Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 695 704 10.33182/ml.v17i5.803 The COVID-19, Migration and Livelihood in India: Challenges and Policy Issues https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1048 <p><em>The worldwide spread of COVID-19 first reported from Wuhan in China is attributed to migration and mobility of people. In this article, we present how our understanding of migration and livelihood could be helpful in designing a mitigating strategy of the economic and social impact of COVID-19 in India. We conclude that there are many challenges migrants face during the spread of COVID-19 resulting from nation-wide lockdown. Many internal migrants faced problems such as lack of food, basic amenities, lack of health care, economic stress, lack of transportation facilities to return to their native places and lack of psychological support. On the other hand, COVID-19 has also brought into sharp focus the emigrants from India and the major migration corridors India shares with the world as well. There is huge uncertainty about how long this crisis will last. This article further provides some immediate measures and long term strategies to be adopted by the government such as improving public distribution system, strengthening the public health system, integration of migrants with development, decentralisation as a strategy to provide health services, and providing support to return migrants to reintegrate them, and also strengthen the database on migration and migrant households.</em></p> Ram B Bhagat Reshmi R.S. Harihar Sahoo Archana K. Roy Dipti Govil Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 705 718 10.33182/ml.v17i5.1048 Reflections on Collective Insecurity and Virtual Resistance in the times of COVID-19 in Malaysia https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1013 <p><em>Environments of human insecurity are a widespread problem in our globalised world, particularly for migrant workers, one of the most vulnerable groups in society today. These experiences of insecurity have been heightened in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we examine the collective experience of insecurity among migrant workers in Malaysia. In our analysis, we outline collective insecurity at two levels: the micro level of migrant workers’ daily, subjective experiences of insecurity; and the macro level, in which insecurity is a consequence of structural forces, specifically the globalisation of labour. These two levels interact symbiotically, producing states of insecurity that are concretely experienced as anxiety and fear. Migrant workers in Malaysia also practice agency through small forms of resistance that they use to bolster one another and reduce their insecure experiences. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent Movement Control Order (MCO) in Malaysia, migrant workers have been further marginalised by the state, but they have also become connected to one another through acts of solidarity and resistance. However, the sustainability of these forms remains unclear. </em></p> Linda Lumayag Teresita Del Rosario Frances S. Sutton Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 719 731 10.33182/ml.v17i5.1013 Editorial: Foreign seasonal migrants in agriculture and COVID-19 https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/1153 <p><em>Foreign seasonal migrants fill labour shortages in host countries if employers do not or cannot find available short-term labour from among the country’s own labour reserves. In reality, it is difficult to find seasonal workers from among the native population ready to work in the primary sector, making the sector highly dependent on a foreign workforce. Migration Letters as an international journal addresses the diversity of human migration and mobility, which includes a wide range of dynamic aspects affecting the modern world. The current fifth issue of volume 17 of the journal includes multi-sided content on the topic from papers around the world. It includes papers dealing with refugees, asylum seekers, displaced populations, migrant workers, job-education mismatch, the language proficiency of migrants, their personal networks and sex traffickers.</em></p> Elli Heikkilä Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 563 567 10.33182/ml.v17i5.1153 Migrant Youth and Politics: A workshop https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/922 <p><em>On 9-10<sup>th</sup> September 2019 academics from universities around the UK met at Loughborough University to discuss working with children and young people, particularly those with a migrant/diasporic background. The workshop stemmed from the authors’ research project on youth identity and politics in diaspora (<a href="about:blank">www.youth-diaspora-politics.org</a>) which has shown that young people in diaspora are, on the whole, politicised. All participants work/have worked with children and young people on themes of identity and politics and presented their work at the workshop. One of our main conclusions is that, despite the challenges, a stronger research focus is needed on young migrants and those in diaspora; their opinions, identities and experiences are important in their own right. After a short overview of each presentation, in the last section we consider some methodological and ethical challenges we all shared and discussed, as well as some issues that need to be considered in the future.</em></p> Cintia Cintia Silva Huxter Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 747 752 10.33182/ml.v17i5.922 Case Study: Foreign Workers in Malaysia https://journals.tplondon.com/ml/article/view/925 <p><em>Malaysia has become a popular destination for many foreign workers since getting independence in 1957, owing to its rapidly growing economy and industrialisation. Most of the migrant workers in Malaysia are low-skilled or uneducated, and public debate is going on their outcome, whether it is substantial or not. The purpose of this study is to manifest the role and contribution of imported labour to the Malaysian economy. Evidence is collected from secondary sources- journal article, relevant books, and online databases. The review finds that the impact of migrant labour on Malaysian growth has not been studied holistically and sufficiently. Existing evidence shows that although it is somewhat positive, the public attitude is most adverse to illegal and irregular migrants. Therefore, more empirical research is required to determine the role of imported temporary workers on the economy of Malaysia, for its ongoing vision- to become a high-income nation.</em></p> Sheikh Mohammad Maniruzzaman Al Masud Rohana Binti Hamzah Hasan Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Migration Letters 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 17 5 733 746 10.33182/ml.v17i5.925