Attracting High Skilled Individuals in the EU: The Finnish Experience
Keywords:Environmental self-identity, Peer Pressure, Collectivism Culture, Green Products, Purchase Intention, Purchase Behavior
The ageing population, demographic change and a lack of skilled labour in the EU are increasingly provoking governments to apply direct measures to aggressively recruit economic migrants, particularly high skilled individuals (HSIs). As most countries in the EU face similar challenges, attracting HSIs from the third countries are predominantly vital. One of the EU-wide programs to attract skilled professionals is the Blue Card program, which was introduced in 2009 as part of the European Council Directive to focus on highly qualified employment, aimed at making Europe an appropriate host region for qualified workers from the non-EU countries. The EU Blue Card programme is adopted by 25 EU member states, apart from Ireland, Denmark and the United Kingdom. In this article, we discussed underlying features of the EU Blue Card program with a particular focus on the Finnish experience as one of the most successful the EU countries in attracting and retaining talent and HSIs.
Akanle, O. (2018). International migration narratives: Systemic global politics, irregular and return migrations. International Sociology, 33(2), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580918757105
Almosova, A. (2014). Labor market institutions and the effect of immigration on national employment. Business and Economic Horizons, 9(4), 53-74. https://doi.org/10.15208/beh.2013.22
Boucher, A. K. (2019). How 'skill' definition affects the diversity of skilled immigration policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1561063
Boxall, P., Huo, M.-L., & Winterton, J. (2019). How do workers benefit from skill utilisation and how can these benefits be enhanced? Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(5), 704-725. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022185618819169
Cerna, L. (2014). Attracting High-Skilled Immigrants: Policies in Comparative Perspective. International Migration, 52(3), 69-84.
Danaj, A., Lazányi, K., & Bilan, Y. (2018). Perceptions and Implications of Immigration in France - Economic, Social, Political and Cultural Perspectives. Economics & Sociology, 11(3), 226-247. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2018/11-3/14
Euro Commission. (2009). Council Directive 2009/50/EC. Retrieved from EuroLex website: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32009L0050
European Commission. (2013). European Web Site on Integration-European Commission. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from European Commission website: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/librarydoc/finland-future-of-migration-2020-strategy
European Commission. (2016). Directive (EU) 2016/801 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from EuroLex website: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2016/801/oj
European Commission. (2018). Study on the movement of skilled labour [Final Report]. Retrieved from European Commission website: https://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=20453&langId=mt
European Commission. (2020). EU Immigration Portal. Retrieved from European Commission website: https://ec.europa.eu/immigration/blue-card/
European Migration Network. (2018). Understanding Migration in the European Union: Insights from the European Migration Network 2008-2018. Retrieved from European Migration Network website: http://emn.ie/cat_publication_detail.jsp?clog=1&itemID=3144&t=6
Filipec, O., & Vargová, N. (2019). Perception of Migration from Non-Eu Countries in Slovakia: The Case of Nitra Region. European Journal of Transformation Studies, 7(2), 165-175.
García, F. (2013). Integration of highly skilled third country nationals in Europe: A new proposal for circular talent management. Retrieved from University Institute of Studies on Migration, Comillas Pontifical University website: http://www.mitramiss.gob.es/oberaxe/ficheros/ejes/cooperacion/Integration_highly_skilled_third_country_nationals_in_Europe.pdf
Haindorfer, R. (2020). Impacts of negative labor market experiences on the life satisfaction of European East-West mobile workers: Cross-border commuters from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary in Austria. Journal of Industrial Relations, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022185619897087
International Organization for Migration, Migration Information Centre. (2019). Temporary Residence-EU Blue Card. Retrieved from MicIom website: https://www.mic.iom.sk/en/residence/temporary-residence/236-modra-karta-eu-2.html
Kerr, S. P., Kerr, W., & Lincoln, W. (2014). Firms and the Economics of Skilled Immigration (No. w20069; p. w20069). https://doi.org/10.3386/w20069
Kushnirovich, N. (2019). Labor Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 20(4), 1055-1070. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-018-00648-7
Lanvin, B., & Monteiro, F. (2019). The Global Talent Competitiveness Index. Retrieved from INSEAD website: https://gtcistudy.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/GTCI-2019-Report.pdf
Levatino, A. (2015). Transnational higher education and skilled migration: Evidence from Australia. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.11.009
Malec, L., & Kiráľová, A. (2018). Evaluating Competencies of Graduates in Tourism as a Prerequisite for Future Employability. Prague Economic Papers, 27(2), 196-214. https://doi.org/10.18267/j.pep.651
Martina Burmann, Maria Hofbauer Pérez, Vanessa Hoffmann, Carla Rhode and Sebastian Schworm1. (2018). Highly Skilled Labour Migration in Europe [DICE report]. Retrieved from Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich website: https://www.ifo.de/DocDL/dice-report-2018-1-burmann-et-al.pdf
Ministry of the Interior. (2018). Work in Finland-Government Migration Policy Programme to Strengthen Labour Migration (No. 5/2018). Retrieved from Ministry of the Interior website: http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/160518/05%202018%20SM%20Work%20in%20Finland.pdf
OECD. (2018a). OECD economic surveys: European Union 2018. Paris: OECD Publishing.
OECD. (2018b). Working Together: Skills and Labour Market Integration of Immigrants and their Children in Finland. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264305250-en
Pešek, O., & Kraft, S. (2019). Spatial mobility and current travel behaviour in the metropolitan hinterland. Geografický Časopis - Geographical Journal, 71(3). https://doi.org/10.31577/geogrcas.2019.71.3.14
Pisár, P., Huňady, J., & Ľapinová, E. (2018). Work Flexibility in Developed Countries: Economic Context and Policy Implications. Prague Economic Papers, 27(6), 684-703. https://doi.org/10.18267/j.pep.688
Prime Minister's Office. (2017). Finland, a land of solutions Mid-term review: Government Action Plan2017-2019 (No. 7/2017). Retrieved from Prime Minister's Office website: https://valtioneuvosto.fi/documents/10184/321857/Government+action+plan+28092017+en.pdf
Privara, A., Rievajová, E., & Yüceşahin, M. M. (2019). Labour Market Disadvantages Faced by Migrant Workers from Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia in Britain. Migration Letters, 16(4), 585-594. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i4.720
Přívara, A. (2019). Citizenship-for-Sale Schemes in Bulgaria, Cyprus, and Malta. Migration Letters, 16(2), 245-254. https://doi.org/10.33182//ml.v16i2.735
Rehák, R. (2018). Environmental solutions in practice. Ekonomika cestovného ruchu a podnikanie, 10(1), 64-76.
Rehák, R. (2018). Electromobility in European Union. Ekonomika cestovného ruchu a podnikanie, 10(1), 53-63.
Sirkeci, I., Acik, N., Saunders, B., & Přívara, A. (2018). Barriers for highly qualified A8 immigrants in the UK labour market. Work, employment and society, 32(5), 906-924. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017017726912
Soon, J.-J. (2018). Effects of EU Expansion on Migrants Employment and Income: A Natural Experiment. Prague Economic Papers, 27(1), 113-128. https://doi.org/10.18267/j.pep.648
Ueki, Y., & Guaita Martínez, J. M. (2019). The impact of engineers' skills and problem-solving abilities on process innovation. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2019.1596826
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, & Population Division. (2020). World population ageing, 2019 highlights.
Verwiebe, R., Reinprecht, C., Haindorfer, R., & Wiesboeck, L. (2017). How to Succeed in a Transnational Labor Market: Job Search and Wages among Hungarian, Slovak, and Czech Commuters in Austria. International Migration Review, 51(1), 251-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12193
Visaguide. (2020). EU Blue Card Germany. Retrieved from Visaguide website: https://visaguide.world/europe/eu-blue-card/germany/
Yu, K.-H. (2019). Negotiating 'otherness' as skilled migrants. Journal of Industrial Relations, 61(2), 198-224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022185618802607