Adaptation and acculturation: Resettling displaced tribal communities from wildlife sanctuaries in India

Authors

  • Madhulika Sahoo School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University
  • Jalandhar Pradhan Department of Humanities and Social Sciences https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5998-0363

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v18i3.877

Keywords:

Acculturation, Chhattisgarh, Displacement, Odisha, Resettlement

Abstract

Tribal population across the world, especially in Asia and Africa, face violence and abuse in the name of conservation that carries a heavy human cost. A report on the eviction of populations from 34 protected areas in Africa made it evident that the Congo DRC, Cameroon, Gabon, the Central African Republic of Congo had displaced whole villages leading to conflict and multiple human rights abuses. Recently in India, around 400 families from Amchang wildlife sanctuary in Assam and 78 families from Satkosia wildlife sanctuary in Odisha were forcefully evicted and their houses demolished. The population thus forcefully evicted from wildlife sanctuaries are subjected to disruption of the original settlement, cultural shift and scattered kinship groups. Studies have also highlighted the consequences of displacement on health since it leads to collapses in mutual help in childcare and deteriorates healthcare trends. The present study was conducted among the displaced tribal communities from wildlife sanctuaries in Odisha and Chhattisgarh States in India. The paper analyzes the acculturation process observed among the displaced tribals and the ways in which they adapted themselves into host communities.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Madhulika Sahoo, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University

Dr. Madhulika Sahoo, Assistant Professor (Socio-cultural Anthropology) School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University AP Andhra Pradesh, India, 522237

Area of insterest include- Ethnigraphy, internally displaced person, Forced migration, reproductive health, indigenous people

References

Abraído-Lanza, A.F., Armbrister, A.N., Flórez, K.R. and Aguirre, A.N. 2006. Toward a theory-driven model of acculturation in public health research. American journal of public health, 96(8): 1342-1346.

Alcorn, J. 2010. Indigenous peoples and conservation, Macarthur foundation. Available at: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/CSD_Indigenous_Peoples_White_Paper.pdf (accessed on January 2018)

Arica, E., Snikker. M., Bailey. D. and Correa. V. 2001. Models of acculturation and behaviours among latino immigrants to the US, Social Science and Medicine. 53 (1): 41-53

Athayde, S., and Silva-logu, J. 2018. Adaptive strategies to displacement and environmental change among the Kaiabi indigenous people of the Brazialian amazon. Society and natural resources.

Bera, S. 2012. Baigas in exile, Down to earth, Available at http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/baigas-in-exile-38674 (accessed on November 2019)

Bera, S. 2014. Remaining tribals in Simlipal tiger reserve to be displaced, Down to Earth. Available at http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/remaining-tribals-in-simlipal-tiger-reserve-to-be-displaced--44475 (accessed on December 2019)

Berry, J. 1976. Human ecology and cognitive style: comparative studies in cultural and psychological adaptation. Sage.

Berry, J. 1990. Psychology of acculturation: understanding individuals moving between cultures. In R.W. Brislin (Ed.), Applied cross-cultural psychology. Sage publication.

Berry, J. 1997. Immigration adaptation and acculturation. Applied psychology: An international review. 46(1): 5-68.

Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L. and Vedder, P. 2006. Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An international review. 55(3): 303-332

Birman, D., Trickett, E.J., and Vinokurov, A. 2002. Acculturation and adaptation of soviet jweish refugee adolescents: Predictors of adjustment across life domain. American Journal of community Psychology. 30(5): 585-607

Cernea, M. 1997. The risks and reconstruction model for resettling displaced populations. World Development 25 (10):1569–1687

Cortes, D. E., Rogler, L. H., and Malgady, R. G. 1994. Biculturality among Puerto Rican adults in the United States. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22: 707–721.

Creswell, J.W., Plano Clark, V.L., Gutmann, M.L., Hanson, W.E. 2003. Advances in mixed methods research designs. In: Tashakkori A, Teddlie C, editors. Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. SAGE; Thousand Oaks, CA. pp. 209–240.

Internally Displacement Monitoring Centre .2016. Global report on internal displacement’ Norwegian refugee council. Available at: http://www.internal-displacement.org/assets/publications/2016/2016-global-report-internal-displacement-IDMC.pdf (accesses on 6 April 2019)

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). 2012. Indigenous Peoples: Valuing, Respecting and Supporting Diversity. Available at www.ifad.org/documents/10180/0f2e8980-09bc-45d6-b43b-8518a64962b3. (Accessed on January 2019)

Karipek, Y.Z. 2017. Asylum seekers experience and acculturation: A study of Syrian university students in Turkey. Turkish journal of Middle Eastern studies. p105-133. Available at: http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/365565 (accessed May 2019)

Kou, B.C.H. 2014. Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of literature. Health psychology and behavioural medicine. 2(1)16-33.

Lasgorceix, A. and Kothari, A., 2009. Displacement and relocation of protected areas: A synthesis & analysis of case studies. Economic & Political Weekly, Vol XLIV No 49.

Mackay, F., and Caruso, E. 2016. Indigenous lands or national park. Available at https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-lands-or-national-parks (accessed on December 2019)

Mahapatra, A.K., Tiwari, D.D., and Baboo, B. 2015. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India. Environmental management 56 (2):420-432.

Mishra, R.C., and Chaubey, A.C. 2002, Acculturation attitudes of Kharwar and Agaria tribal groups of Sonebhadra. Psychology and developing societies.14(2): 202-220

Mishra, R.C., Sinha, D., Widdup, J. 1996. Ecology, acculturation and psychological adaptation: A study of adivasis in Bihar. New Delhi, Sage publication.

Oliver-Smith, A. 2009. Introduction in development-forced displacement and resettlement: A human rights crisis. Ed. A. Oliver-Smith, 3-23. Santa Fe: SAR press.

Oliver-Smith, A. 2010. Defying displacement: Grassroots resistance and the critique of development. Austin: University of Texas.

Panigrahi, R. and Patttnaik, P.P. 2004. Study on issues relating to sustainable livelihood of tribals and marginalized sections Chandaka wildlife sanctuary. Vasundhara. Available at: http://www.vasundharaodisha.org/Research%20Reports/Chandaka%20Wild%20Life%20Sanctuary.pdf (accessed April 2019)

Park, R.E. 1928. Human migration and the marginal man. American Journal of Sociology. 33:881-983

PRS 2014. Tribal draft policy. Available at http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/1167469383/bill53_2007010353_Draft_National_Policy_on_Tribals.pdf (accessed on December 2019)

Redfield, R., Linton, B., Herskovit, M.J. 1936. Memorandum on the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist. 28 (1): 149-152

Schwartz, S.J., Unger, J.B, Zamboanga, B.L., and Szapocznik, J. 2010. Rethinking the concept of acculturation, American Psychology. 65(4): 237–251

The Indian Express. 2017. 400 families evicted from Amchang wildlife sanctuary. Available at http://indianexpress.com/article/india/400-families-evicted-from-amchang-wildlife-sanctuary-in-guwahati-4957372/. (accessed February 2019)

The New Indian Express. 2017. Villages relocated from tiger turf. Available at http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/2017/dec/08/villagers-relocated-from-tiger-turf-1721761.html. (accessed February 2019)

Tonsing, K. 2014. Acculturation and adaptation of first and second generation South Asians in Hong Kong. International journal of social welfare. 23(1): 410-420

United Nation Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). 2016. Global Sustainable Development Report. New York. Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/2328Global%20Sustainable%20 development%20report%202016%20(final).pdf. (Accessed February 2019).

Vidal, J. 2016. The tribes paying the brutal price of conservation. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/28/exiles-human-cost-of-conservation-indigenous-peoples-eco-tourism (Accessed on April 2019)

Published

2021-05-16

How to Cite

Sahoo, M., & Pradhan, J. (2021). Adaptation and acculturation: Resettling displaced tribal communities from wildlife sanctuaries in India . Migration Letters, 18(3), 237–259. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v18i3.877

Issue

Section

Articles