Cinematic Visual Representation of Refugee Journeys in Turkey in the Context of Precarious Class Dynamics
AbstractIn this article, I comparatively analyse the imagery of precarious class through the narration of refugee journeys in Turkey for two different films, with an emphasis on the visuality of cinematic narration. Whilst The Guest Aleppo to Istanbul (2017) by Andaç Haznedaroğlu and More by Onur Saylak certainly offer different portrayals of refugees in Turkey, both reflect on the precarious class dynamics in the context of migration and reveal the complex interplay of citizenship, meritocracy and suffering. By focusing on precarious status, these fictional representations illustrate that the incoming non-citizens provide the opportunity of self-reflexibility for the host community members and expose the fragility of the border between the citizen-self and the refugee. I contend that such distinct comparative portrayals encompassing precarity instead of humanity, as common ground between host and new arrival populations, necessarily requires drawing upon a broader literature on the human conditions for politics of justice rather than pity.
Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life (1 edition; D. Heller-Roazen, Trans.). Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Arendt, H. (2006). On Revolution. New York: Penguin Classics.
Aristotle. (1999). Nicomachean Ethics (2nd edition; T. Irwin, Trans.). Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.
Baban, F., Ilcan, S., & Rygiel, K. (2017). Syrian refugees in Turkey: Pathways to precarity, differential inclusion, and negotiated citizenship rights. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(1), 41-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1192996
Banki, S. (2013). Precarity of place: A complement to the growing precariat literature. Global Discourse, 3(3-4), 450-463. https://doi.org/10.1080/23269995.2014.881139
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Westport, Conn: Greenwood.
Bourdieu, P. (1993). The Field of Cultural Production (1st edition; R. Johnson, Ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Butler, J. (2009). Performativity, Precarity and Sexual Politics. AIBR. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana, 04(03), I-XIII. https://doi.org/10.11156/aibr.040303e
Duschinsky, R. (2013). Abjection and Self-Identity: Towards a Revised Account of Purity and Impurity. The Sociological Review, 61(4), 709-727. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12081
Fantone, L. (2007). precarious changes: Gender and generational politics in contemporary Italy. Feminist Review, 87(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400357
Foti, A. (2004). Precarity and N/european Identity (M. Oudenampsen & G. Sullivan, Interviewer). Retrieved from http://www.black-international-cinema.com/BIC05/XX.BIC2005/HTML/articles/article_08.htm
Gezici, I. (2017, November 1). Filmimdeki kızı bulmak için üç sene sınıf sınıf gezdim. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from Sabah website: https://www.sabah.com.tr/magazin/2017/11/01/filmimdeki-kizi-bulmak-icin-uc-sene-sinif-sinif-gezdim
Goldring, L., Berinstein, C., & Bernhard, J. K. (2009). Institutionalizing precarious migratory status in Canada. Citizenship Studies, 13(3), 239-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621020902850643
Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2001). Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Harvey, D. (1991). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford England ; Cambridge, Mass., USA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection (Reprint edition; L. Roudiez, Trans.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Nobil Ahmad, A. (2008). Dead men working: Time and space in London's ('illegal') migrant economy. Work, Employment and Society, 22(2), 301-318. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017008089106
Okur, Y. (2017). Daha (More) Plot Summary. Retrieved from IMDB website: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt5927420/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl
Rossiter, N. and Neilson, B. (2005). From Precarity to Precariousness and Back Again: Labour, Life and Unstable Networks. The Fibreculture Journal, (5). Retrieved from http://five.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-022-from-precarity-to-precariousness-and-back-again-labour-life-and-unstable-networks/
Saylak, O. (2019, April). Göçü Belgelemek. Presented at the Bahçeşehir University Istanbul. Bahçeşehir University Istanbul.
Saylak, O. (n.d.). More (2017)-IMDb. Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt5927420/plotsummary
Sennett, R. (2000). The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism (1 edition). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
Szary, A.-L. A. (2012). Walls and Border Art: The Politics of Art Display. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 27(2), 213-228.
Taran, P. (2015, July). Migration, Trafficking and Globalization: What are States to do? Presented at the Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from https://www.osce.org/secretariat/173961?download=true
The Guest Aleppo | Malmo Arab Film Festival. (2019). Retrieved May 26, 2019, from Malmö Arab Film Festival website: http://maffswe.com/the-guest-aleppo-istanbul/
Tinti, P., & Reitano, P. T. and T. (2018). Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Saviour. Oxford University Press.
Van Hear, N. (2014). Reconsidering Migration and Class. International Migration Review, 48(1_suppl), 100-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12139
Young, I. M. (2011). Justice and the Politics of Difference (Revised ed. edition). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London