The Securitisation - Integration Dilemma: The Case of British Muslims
Keywords:securitisation, othering, immigrant integration, Britain, Muslim
This article analyses securitisation of the integration of British Muslims by mainstream British politics from 2001 to 2015. Discourse and policy of consecutive Labour and Conservative-led governments regarding integration are evaluated with respect to securitisation criteria set forth by the Copenhagen School, as revised by the Paris School. Institutionalisation of a common discourse legitimising policy was inquired through the examination of intertextuality between political and bureaucratic discourse, party positions during terms of government and opposition. Findings demonstrate that British mainstream politics has been dominated by securitisation of Muslims’ integration, in the form of a ‘politics of unease’ rather than a ‘politics of exception’. Muslims have been othered, first by ‘logic of equivalence’ as immigrants (2001-2005), then by ‘logic of difference’ as integrated Muslims versus potential terrorists (2005-2015). Although the integration approach appears inclusive of Muslims, securitisation framing inhibits the desired integration due to its othering characteristics.
Balzacq, T. (2010). “Constructivism and securitization studies”. In: M.D. Cavelty and V.Mauer (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies (pp.56-72), New York: Routledge.
Bigo, D. (2002). “Security and immigration: towards a critique of the governmentality of unease”. Alternatives, 27: 63-92.
“Blair backs Blunkett on race”. (2001, December 10) BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/1700370.stm
Blair, T. (2005, August 5). “PM’s press conference”. The National Archives. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20040105034004/http://number10.gov.uk/page8041
Boswell, C. (2003). European migration policies in flux: changing patterns of inclusion and exclusion. London: Blackwell Publishing.
Brubaker, R. (1992). Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. London: Harward University Press.
Buonfino, A. (2004). “Between unity and plurality: the politicization and securitization of immigration in Europe”. New Political Science, 26(1): 23-49.
Buzan, B., Wæver, O. & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: a new framework for analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Cantle, T. (2001). Community cohesion: a report of the independent review team. London: HMSO.
Castles, S. & Miller, M. J. (2003). The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world. New York: Guilford Press.
Ceyhan, A. & Tsoukala, A. (2002). “The securitisation of migration in western societies: ambivalent discourses and policies”. Alternatives, 27: 21-39.
DCLG. (2007). Preventing violent extremism: winning hearts and minds. London: Department for Communities and Local Government Publications.
DCLG. 2012. Creating the conditions for integration. London: Department for Communities and Local Government Publications.
Entzinger, H. & Biezeveld, R. (2003). Benchmarking in immigrant integration. Rotterdam: European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/e-library/documents/policies/legal-migration/pdf/general/benchmarking_final_en.pdf
Epifanio, M. (2011). “Legislative response to international terrorism”. Journal of Peace Research, 48(3): 399-411.
Favell, A. (1998). Philosophies of integration: immigration and the idea of citizenship in France and Britain. London: Macmillan.
Freeman, G.P. (2004). “Immigrant incorporation in western democracies”. International migration review, 38(3): 945-969.
Grillo, R. (2009). “British and others: from ‘race’ to ‘faith’”. In S. Vertovec, & S. Wessendorf (eds.) The multiculturalism backlash: European discourses, policies and practices (pp. 50-71), London: Routledge.
Guzzini, S. (2011). “Securitisation as a causal mechanism”. Security dialogue, 42(4-5): 329-341.
Hansard (2002a, February 7). “Nationality, immigration and asylum”. HC Deb Vol. 379, c.1031.
Hansard (2002b, April 24). “Nationality, immigration and asylum bill”. HC Deb Vol. 384, cc.341-432.
Hansard (2004, July 22). “Managed migration review”. HC Deb Vol. 424, c.65WS.
Hansen, R. (2003). “Citizenship and integration in Europe”. In: C. Joppke & E. Morawska (eds.) Toward assimilation and citizenship: immigrants in liberal nation states (pp. 87-109), Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
HM Government. (2006). Countering international terrorism: The United Kingdom’s strategy. CM 6888. London: HMSO.
HM Government. (2008a). Preventing violent extremism: a strategy for delivery. Ref: 288113. London: HMSO.
HM Government. (2008b). The prevent strategy: a guide for local partners in England- stopping people becoming or supporting terrorists and violent extremists. Ref: 288324. London: HMSO.
HM Government. (2011). Prevent strategy. CM 8092. London: HMSO.
Home Office. (2002). Secure borders, safe haven: integration with diversity in modern Britain. CM 5387. London: HMSO.
Home Office. (2005). Controlling our borders: making migration work for Britain: five year strategy for asylum and immigration. CM 6472. London: HMSO.
Howarth, D. & Stavrakakis, Y. (2000). “Introducing discourse theory and political analysis”. In: D. Howarth, A. J. Norval & Y. Stavrakakis (eds.) Discourse theory and political analysis: identities, hegemonies and social change (pp. 1-23), Manchaster: Manchaster University Press.
Huysmans, J. & Buonfino, A. (2008). “Politics of exception and unease: immigration, asylum and terrorism in parliamentary debates in the UK”. Political studies, 56(4): 766-788.
Huysmans, J. (2011). “What is an act? on security speech acts and little security nothings”. Security dialogue, 42(4-5): 371-383.
“It’s not about cricket tests”. (2001, December 14). The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2001/dec/14/race.uk
Johnson, A. (2010, January 5). “Home secretary's statement on the attempted terrorist attack on the US and the implications for aviation and border security”. The National Archives. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100408115145/http://press.homeoffice.gov.uk/Speeches/alan-johnson-terrorist-attack.html
Joppke, C. & Morawska, E. (2002). “Integrating immigrants in liberal nation - states: policies and practices”. In: C. Joppke & E. Morawska (eds.) Toward assimilation and citizenship: immigrants in liberal nation states (pp. 1-36), Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Joppke, C. (1999). Immigration and the nation-state: The United States, Germany and Great Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Karatani, R. (2003). Defining British citizenship: empire, commonwealth and modern Britain. London: Frank Cass Publishers.
Kastoryano, R. (2002). Negotiating identities: states and immigrants in France and Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kastoryano, R. (2003). “Transnational networks and political participation: the place of immigrants in the European Union”. In: M. Berezin & M. Schain (eds.) Europe without borders: remapping territory, citizenship and identity in a transnational age (pp. 64-89), Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Khan, M. A. M. (2007). “Islam and the new Europe: the remaking of a civilisation”. Global Dialogue, 9(3-4): 19-32.
Koopmans, R., Statham, P., Giugni, M. & Passy, F. (eds.) (2005). Contested citizenship: immigration and cultural diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press.
Kostakopoulou, D. (2010). “Matters of control: integration tests, naturalisation reform and probationary citizenship in the United Kingdom”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5): 829-846.
Kundnani, A. (2007). “Integrationism: the politics of anti-Muslim racism”. Race and Class, 48(4): 24-44.
Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: a liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McGhee, D. (2006). “Getting ‘host’ communities on board: finding the balance between ‘managed migration’ and ‘managed settlement’ in community cohesion strategies”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(1): 111-127.
Mitri, T. (2007). “Christians and Muslims: memory, amity and enmities”. In: A. al-Azmeh & E. Fokas (eds.) Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity and Influence (pp. 16-33), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Modood, T. (1997). “Introduction”. In: T. Modood & P. Werbner (eds.) The Politics of multiculturalism in the new Europe (pp. 1-15), London: Zed Books.
Modood, T. (2003). “Muslims and the politics of difference”. The Political Quarterly, 74(supp. 1): 37-58.
Modood, T. (2005). Multicultural politics: racism, ethnicity and muslims in Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Parekh, B. (1998). “Integrating minorities”. In: T. Blackstone, B. Parekh & P. Sanders (eds.) Race relations in Britain: a developing agenda (pp. 1-21), London: Routledge.
Seidman, S. (2013). “Defilement and disgust: theorizing the other”. American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 1(1): 3-25.
Solomos, J. (2003). Race and racism in Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Squire, V. (2005). “‘Integration with diversity in modern Britain’: new Labour on nationality, immigration and asylum”. Journal of Political Ideologies, 10(1): 51-74.
Thatcher, M. (1978, January 27). TV interview for Granada world in action”. Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/103485
Triadafilopoulos, T. (2001). “Illiberal means to liberal ends? Undertanding recent immigrant integration policies in Europe”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6): 861-880.
“UK 'must tackle ethnic tensions'”. (2006, August 24). BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/5280230.stm
“Universities 'complacent' over Islamic extremism, warns Theresa May”. (2011, June 6). The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/jun/06/universities-attacked-over-islamic-extremism
Waever, O. (2007). “Securitisation and desecuritisation”. In: B. Buzan & L. Hansen (eds.), International security volume iii: Widening security (pp. 66-98), London: Sage Publications.
Waever, O., Buzan, B., Kelstrup, M. & Lamaitre, P. (eds.) (1993). Identity, migration and the new security agenda in Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
“What does citizenship mean today?”. (2002, September 15). The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/sep/15/race.thinktanks
Williams, M. C. (2003). “Words, images, enemies: securitization and international politics”. International Studies Quarterly, 47(4): 511-531.
Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London