Disintegration of the European Asylum Systems: A Featuring Attempt
Keywords:Contemporary Turkish Literature, Psychiatrist Novelists, Medical Humanities, Psychiatry and Literature
AbstractThis study assesses the integration path of national asylum systems within the European Union between 2008 and 2017. We apply factor and cluster analyses using ten European harmonised indicators on asylum, managed migration and immigration legislation enforcement. Our results are threefold: first, the disintegration of the European asylum systems started in 2012, three years before the mediatisation of the so-called refugee crisis. Second, this disintegration is rooted in Germany’s open-door refugee policy on one side, and excessive repressive policies on the borders in Italy, France, Spain and Poland. Third, the number of applications and the number of third-country nationals found to be illegally present or ordered to leave do not appear as roots of disintegration.
Arango, J. and Martin, P. (2006). “Best practices to manage migration: Morocco-Spain”, International Migration Review, 39(1): 258-269.
Bartlett, M.S. (1937). “Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests”, Proceedings of the Royal Society Series A, 160: 268-282.
Beine, M., Docquier, F. and Ozden, C. (2011). “Diasporas”, Journal of Development Economics, 95(1): 30-41.
Bertoli, S., Brücker, H. and Moraga, F. (2016). “The European crisis and migration to Germany”, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 60: 61-72.
Bordignon, M. and Moriconi, S. (2017). “The case for a common European refugee policy”, Bruegel Policy Contribution 2017/8, 14p.
Cali’nski, T. And Harabasz, J. (1974). “A dendrite method for cluster analysis”,Communications in Statistics – Theory and Methods, 3: 1-27.
Du Caju, P., Gautier, E., Momferatou, D. and Ward-Wardmedinger, M. (2008). Institutional features of wage bargaining in 23 European countries, the US and Japan. ECB Working Paper Series n°974, European Central Bank.
Duda, R.O., Hart, P.E. and Stork, D.G. (2001). “Pattern Classification”. 2nded. New York:Wiley.
European Commission (2008). “Policy plan on asylum: an integrated approach to protection across the EU”, COM (2008) 360 final.
European Parliament (2016). “Internal border controls in the Schengen area: is Schengen crisis-proof?”,Study for the Lib
Everitt, B.S., Landau, S., Leese, M. and Stahl, D. (2011).“Cluster analysis”. 5th ed. Chichester, UK:Wiley.
Gordon, A.D.(1999).“Classification”, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Green, S. (2013). “Germany: a changing country of immigration”, German Politics, 22(3): 333-351.
Guild, E. and Carrera, S. (2016). “Rethinking asylum distribution in the EU: shall we start with the facts?”, CEPS Commentary, June.
Hatton, T. (2015). “Asylum policy in the EU: the case for deeper integration”, CESifo Economic Studies, 61(3-4): 605-637. DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv002.
Hatton, T. (2014). “The slump and immigration policy in Europe”, IZA discussion paper No. 7985.
Kaiser, H.F. (1974). “An index of factor simplicity”, Psychometrika, 39(1): 31-36.
Klaus, W. (2017). “Closing gates to refugees: the causes and effects of the 2015 migration crisis on border management in Hungary and Poland”, Minorities, diasporas, refugees in contemporary Europe, 15(3): 11-34.
Kok Sorensen, C. and Puigvert Gutiérrez, J.M. (2006). Euro area banking sector integration: using hierarchical cluster analysis techniques. ECB Working Paper Series n°627, European Central Bank.
Lucotte, Y. (2015). Euro area banking fragmentation in the aftermath of the crisis: a cluster analysis. Applied Economics Letters, 22(13): 1046-1050.
Milligan, G.W. and Cooper, M.C. (1985). “An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a dataset”, Psychometrika, 50: 159-179.
Norusis, M.J.(2010). “Chapter 16: Cluster analysis”. PASW Statistics 18 Statistical Procedures Companion, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 361-391.
Ortega, F. and Peri, G. (2013). “The role of income and immigration policies in attracting international migrants”, Migration Studies, 1(1): 47-74.
Parusel, B. (2015). “Solidarity and fairness in the Common European Asylum System – failure or progress?”, Migration Letters, 12(2): 124-136.
Syed Zwick, H. and Syed, S.A.S. (2016). “The polarization impact of the crisis on the Eurozone labour markets: a hierarchical cluster analysis”, Applied Economic Letters, 24(7): 472-476. DOI: 10.1080/13503851.2016.1203055.
Syed Zwick, H. and Syed, S.A.S. (2017). “Great Recession impact on European labor markets integration: cluster analyses”, International Journal of Manpower, 38(7): 1016-1035. DOI: 10.1108/IJM-03-2016-0059.
Thielemann, S. (2018). “Why refugee burden-sharing initiatives fail: public goods, free-riding and symbolic solidarity in the EU”, Journal of Common Market Studies, 56(1): 63-82. DOI: 10.1111/JCMS.12662.
Vespe, M. and Santamaria, C. (2018). “Towards an EU policy on migration data”, Joint Research Center Report for Policy Report, European Commission. DOI: 10.2760/645367.
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London