Multiple belongings and Composite identities of young people from the South of Guanajuato, Mexico


  • Ana Vila Freyer Universidad Latina de México, Guanajuato


This article is based on semi-structured interviews with young high-school and sophomore students who came back from the United States to Guanajuato intending to analyse the life trajectory of young migrants based on the notion of multiple belongings and composite identities proposed by Amín Maalouf. Based on it we want to advance the idea that the perspectives that emphasize assimilation or transnationalism do not help explain the process of coming back, on a generation of young people who grew up irregularly in the United States and were forced to return to Mexico. We propose that a compound identity is emerging in the North American region, one that allows migrants and their children to develop multiple belongings to cultures, territories and jobs that facilitate the resilience of these young people in their life trajectories on different social spaces.


Benedict A., (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (2da. edition).

Benedict, A., (1992). Long-Distance Nationalism. World Capitalism and the Rise of Identity Politics, The Wertheim Lecture. Center for Asian Studies, Amsterdam.

Brubaker, R., y Frederick Cooper, (2000). Beyond "identity". En Theory and Society, 29; 1-47.

Cyrulnik, B., ([2001] 2015). Los Patitos Feos LA RESILIENCIA Una infancia infeliz no determina la vida, México: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial.

Hall, P. y Michèle Lamont, (2013). Social Resilience in the Neo-Liberal Era, Cambridge University Press.

Hall, S. ([1996], 2003). Introduction: Who Needs Identity? En Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay, Questions of Cultural Identity, Sage Publications.

Glick-Schiller N., (2015). "Explanatory Frameworks in Transnational Migration Studies: The missing multiscalar global perspective". En Ethnic and Racial Studies, V. 38 (13) pp. 2275-2282

Levitt P., y Nina Glick Schiller, (2004). "Perspectivas Internacionales sobre migración: conceptualizar la simultaneidad". in Migración y Desarrollo, No. 3, pp. 60-91

Levitt, P., (2015). Welcome to the Club? A response to The Cross -Border Connection by Roger Waldinger. En Ethnic and Racial Studies, V. 38 (13), pp. 2283-2298

Itzigsohn, J., (2015). "The Strengths and Limits of Waldinger's the Cross-border Connection", Ethnic and Racial Studies, V. 38 (13) pp. 2299-2304

Maalouf, A. (1998). Les identités meurtières. Paris: Éditions Grasset & Frasquelle.

Portes, A., Luis Guarnizo y Patricia Landolt, (2003). "El estudio del transnacionalismo: Peligros latentes y promesas de un campo de investigación emergente". En La globalización desde abajo: Transnacionalimso inmigrante y desarrollo, la experiencia de Estados Unidos y América Latina, México: Porrúa y FLACSO.

Vila Freyer, Ana (2017). "Pertenencias múltiples e identidades compuestas en un Contexto Norteamericano. Exploraciones a partir de la trayectoria migratoria de 4 jóvenes en el Sur de Guanajuato" en Norteamérica A-o 12, número 1, enero-junio de 2017 pp. 53-78 DOI: 10.20999/nam.2017.a002

Vila Freyer, A. Eduardo Fernández y Perla del Carpio, (2016). "Migración en Tiempos de Crisis: Exploraciones del Concepto de Resiliencia Social Transnacional en Apaseo el Alto, Guanajuato, México". En REMHU - Revista Interdisciplinar de Mobilidade Humana, Brasilia, A-o XXIV, n. 46, p. 273-290, jan./abr.

Waldinger, R., (2015). 'The Cross-Border Connection: a rejoinder'. Ethnic and Racial Studies, V. 38 (13), pp. 2305-2313

Waldinger, R., (2015b). The Cross-Border Connection: Immigrants, Emigrants, and Their Homelands, Harvard University Press.



How to Cite

Freyer, A. V. (2019). Multiple belongings and Composite identities of young people from the South of Guanajuato, Mexico. Migration Letters, 16(2), 255-264. Retrieved from