Inequalities in Healthcare Provision to Third Country Nationals in Cyprus and the Prospect of a Promising Health Reform
The rise of migratory inflows in post-crisis Cyprus raised crucial policy challenges, one of which was about the urgent and pressing problem of their access to healthcare services. The old system was characterised by health inequalities that resulted in high unmet needs, especially among migrants from third countries. Drawing on a document analysis of legislative acts, official reports and research papers regarding national health policy, as well as pilot findings from the field, the main aim of this paper is to shed light on this situation and explore under what conditions the ongoing healthcare reform could address the problem of coverage and access to healthcare services for this vulnerable group.
Abásolo I., Negrín-Hernández M.A., and Pinilla J., (2014). "Equity in specialist waiting times by socioeconomic groups: evidence from Spain", European Journal of Health Economics, 15(3): 323-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-013-0524-x
Abel T. and Frohlich K.L., (2012). "Capitals and capabilities: linking structure and agency to reduce health inequalities", Social Science & Medicine, 74(2): 236-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.028
Allin S., Masseria C., Sorenson C., Papanicolas I., and Mossialos E. (2007). Measuring inequalities in access to health care: a review of the indices. European Commission, Brussels.
Baeten R., Spasova S., Vanhercke B., and Coster S., (2018). Inequalities in access to healthcare. A study of national policies. European Social Policy Network (ESPN), European Commission, Brussels.
Christofides L. N., Clerides S., Hadjiyiannis C., and Michael M. S., (2007). "The Impact of Foreign Workers on the Labour Market of Cyprus", Cyprus Economic Policy Review, 1(2): 37-49.
European Commission (2017). Commission Recommendation of 26.4.2017 on the European Pillar of Social Rights. Brussels, 26.4.2017, C(2017) 2600 final.
Eurostat, (2018), Migration and migrant population statistics. [Online], Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics#Migrant_population:_almost_22_million_non-EU_citizens_living_in_the_EU, [Accessed on 29 Dec 2018].
Flores, G., (2005). "The Impact of Medical Interpreter Services on the Quality of Health Care: A Systematic Review", Medical Care Research and Review, 62:255-299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558705275416
Giannoni, M., Franzini, L., and G. Masiero, (2016). "Migrant integration policies and health inequalities in Europe", BMC Public Health, 16: 463. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3095-9
Kantaris M., Theodorou M., Galanis P., and Kaitelidou D., (2014). "Access and utilisation of health services by domestic helpers in Cyprus", International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 29: 383-393. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.2272
Kantaris M., Theodorou M., Kaitelidou D., (2019). "Access and utilisation of health services by migrant domestic helpers in Cyprus: the role of the employer", International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 15(1): 46-60. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJMHSC-09-2017-0037
Kantaris, M. and Theodorou M., (2013). "Access and use of health services in Cyprus by housemaids from non-EU countries", Archives of Hellenic Medicine, 30(1): 59-66. (in Greek).
Klein, J., and von dem Knesebeck, O. (2018). "Inequalities in health care utilization among migrants and non-migrants in Germany: a systematic review", International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(1): 160. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0876-z
Kontemeniotis A. and Theodorou M., (2019). Can people afford to pay for health care? New evidence on financial protection in Cyprus. WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City,
Laudicella M., Siciliani, L., and Cookson R., (2012). "Waiting times and socioeconomic status: evidence from England", Social Science and Medicine, 74(9): 1331-1341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.12.049
Ministry of Interior, (2014). Contract of employment for Domestic worker. [Online], Available at: http://www.moi.gov.cy/moi/CRMD/crmd.nsf/867F9D12353B3C86C2257D23002D4B2E/$file/ΣΥΜΒΟΛΑΙΟ%20GR.pdf [Accessed 27 March, 2018].
Omariba, D.W.R., (2015). "Immigration ethnicity, and avoidable mortality in Canada. 1991-2006", Ethnicity & Health, 20(4): 409-436. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2014.995155
Pithara C., Zembylas M., and Theodorou M., (2012). "Access and effective use of healthcare services by temporary migrants in Cyprus", International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 8 (2): 72-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/17479891211250012
Republic of Cyprus, (2017). Alien and European Data 2017. Social Insurance Service.
Republic of Cyprus, (2017a). Asylum Seekers Data 2017. Asylum Service.
Rosano A., Dauvrin M., Buttigieg S.C., Ronda, E., Tafforeau, J., Dias, S., (2017). "Migrants' access to preventive health services in five EU countries", BMC Health Services Research, 17: 588. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2549-9
Ruger J.P., (2006). "Rethinking equal access: agency, quality, and norms", Global Public Health, 2(1): 78-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441690600911480
Ruger J.P., (2010). "Health capability: conceptualization and operationalization", American Journal of Public Health, 100(1): 41-49. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.143651
Sandvik H., Hunskaar S., Diaz E., (2012). "Immigrants' use of emergency healthcare in Norway: a registry-based observational study", BMC Health Services Research, 12(308). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-12-308
Sen A.K., (1985). Commodities and Capabilities. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Theodorou M., (2019). Is the healthcare reform process in uncharted waters? European Social Policy Network (ESPN), European Commission, Brussels.
Theodorou M., Kantaris, M. and Koutsampelas C., (2018). Inequalities in access to healthcare: Cyprus. European Social Policy Network, European Commission, Brussels.
World Health Organisation, (2015). Mental health and psychosocial support for refugees, asylum seekers and migrant on the move to Europe. WHO, Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organisation, (2010). How health systems can address health inequities linked to migration and ethnicity. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe.