Introduction to Special Issue on Inequalities and Youth Mobilities in Europe from Comparative Perspectives
Keywords:mobility, youth, obstacles, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, correspondence analysis, Europe
Where does youth mobility stand in the complex picture of diverse types of inequalities that affect youth and the content of their mobilities? In the light of this question, with this special issue, we look at the hindering and fostering factors in the mobility of young people, and examine different facets of mobility (social networks, transnational activities, agency, gender, household decisions) in different types of mobility (considering mobility for volunteering, vocational education and training, higher education including both credit and degree mobility, and employment). The analysis presented in the papers of this special issue will enable the identification of inequalities accompanying youth mobility at different levels. The articles in this issue reveal that when it comes to possibilities for becoming mobile, many other types of inequalities apart from the solely economic ones must be considered (Oxfam, 2016, p. 7; Hargittai and Hinnant 2008), including legal, political, social, moral inequalities (White, 2007) together with gender inequality. This special issue on “Inequalities and Youth Mobilities in Europe from Comparative Perspectives” serves the purpose of revealing how diverse types of inequalities can exist within seemingly equal societies.
Allen, K. and Hollingworth, S. (2013). 'Sticky subjects' or 'Cosmopolitan Creatives'? Social class, place and urban young people's aspirations for work in the knowledge economy. Urban Studies 50 (3): 499-517. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098012468901
Amelina, A., & Vasilache, A. (2014). The shadows of enlargement: Theorising mobility and inequality in a changing Europe. Migration Letters, 11(2), 109–124. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v11i2.233
Bastianon, C. (2019). Youth Migration Aspirations in Georgia and Moldova. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 105-121. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.596
Bloch, A. (2017). "Other Mothers," Migration, and a Transnational Nurturing Nexus. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 43(1), 53-75. https://doi.org/10.1086/692441
Bygnes, S., & Erdal, M. B. (2017). Liquid migration, grounded lives: Considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(1), 102-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1211004
Bynner, J. (2005). Rethinking the youth phase of the life-course: The case for emerging adulthood? Journal of Youth Studies, 8, 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260500431628
Cairns, D. (2008). Moving in transition: Northern Ireland youth and geographical mobility. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 16(3), 227-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/110330880801600301
Cairns, D. (Ed.). (2010). Youth on the move: European youth and geographical mobility. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92331-4
Cairns, D. C. (2015). Mapping the Youth Mobility Field: Youth sociology and student mobility and migration in a European context. In: Lange, Reiter, Schutter, Steiner (eds.): Handbuch Kindheits- und Jugendsoziologie, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-05676-6_34-1
Cohen, J. H., & Sirkeci, I. (2011). Cultures of Migration: The Global Nature of Contemporary Mobility. Austin: University of Texas Press. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00589.x
Council of Europe (2013). Establishing a Youth Guarantee. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32013H0426(01). Official Journal of the European Union.
Cuzzocrea, V. & Mandich, G. (2016). Students' narratives of the future: Imagined mobilities as forms of youth agency. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(4), 552-567. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1098773
Dabasi-Halász, Z., Lipták, K., Kiss, J., Manafi, I., Marinescu, D.E., Roman, M., & Lorenzo-Rodriguez, J. (2019). International youth mobility in Eastern and Western Europe – the case of the Erasmus+ programme. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 61-72. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.626
Diaz-Chorne, L., Suárez-Lledó, V., Lorenzo, V. (2019). It's the taking part that counts: Inequalities and simultaneous youth transnational engagement from six European countries. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 73-91. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.628
Elder, G. H. (1995). "Life trajectories in changing societies", in A. Bandura (Ed.). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies (pp. 46-68). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527692.004
Eurobarometer. (2010). Geographical and Labour Market Mobility. No. 337. European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_337_en.pdf on 29 January 2018.
Eurofound. (2011). Foundation findings: Mobility in Europe - The way forward. Retrieved from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_files/pubdocs/2007/03/en/1/ef0703en.pdf
European Commission (2013). Social Policies. Retrieved from https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/4712c372-38f8-4f3b-b6d8-16f4cc2a6c85/language-en
European Commission (2014). Erasmus+ Inclusion and Diversity Strategy, in the field of youth. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/youth/library/reports/inclusion-diversity-strategy_en.pdf
European Commission (2016). Annual Report 2016: Erasmus+ Enriching Lives. Opening Minds. Brussels
Evans, K. (2007). Concepts of bounded agency in education, work, and the personal lives of young adults. International Journal of Psychology, 42(2), 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207590600991237
Farugia, D. (2018). David Farugia is supporting the development of strong regional communities. Retrieved from https://www.newcastle.edu.au/profile/david-m-farrugia
Farrugia, D., Smyth, J., & Harrison, T. (2016). Moral distinctions and structural inequality: homeless youth salvaging the self. The Sociological Review, 64(2), 238-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12252
Favell, A. (2008). The new face of East–West migration in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(5), 701-716. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830802105947
Fischer, P. A., & Malmberg, G. (2001). Settled people don't move: On life course and (im‐) mobility in Sweden. International Journal of Population Geography, 7(5), 357-371. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijpg.230
Geddes, A. (2005). Europe's border relationships and international migration relations. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 43(4), 787-806. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.2005.00596.x
Hargittai, E., & Hinnant, A. (2008). Digital inequality: Differences in young adults' use of the Internet. Communication Research, 35(5), 602-621. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650208321782
Hemming, K., Schlimbach, T., Tillmann, F., Nienaber, B., Roman, M. and Skrobanek, J. (2019). Structural framework conditions and individual motivations for youth-mobility: A macro-micro level approach for different European country-types. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 45-59. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.621
Herz, A., Diaz-Chorne, L., Díaz-Catalán, C., Alice, A. and Samuk, Ş. (2019). Are you mobile, too? The role played by social networks in the intention to move abroad among youth in Europe. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 93-104. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.622
Interview (2018). David Farrugia is supporting the development of strong regional communities. Retrieved from https://www.newcastle.edu.au/profile/david-m-farrugia
King, R., Lulle, A., Morosanu, L., & Williams, A. (2016). International youth mobility and life transitions in Europe: Questions, definitions, typologies and theoretical approaches. Working paper. Sussex Centre for Migration Research.
Kmiotek-Meier, E., Skrobanek, J., Nienaber, B., Vysotskaya, V., Samuk, S., Ardic, T., Pavlova, I., Dabasi-Halázs, Z., Diaz, C., Bissinger, J., Schlimbach, T. & Horvath, K. (2019). Why is it so hard? And for whom? Obstacles in the intra-EU mobility. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 31-44. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.627
Makkai, B., Máté, É., Pirisi, G., & Trócsányi, A. (2017). Where Have All the Youngsters Gone? The Background and Consequences of Young Adults' Outmigration from Hungarian Small Towns. European Countryside, 9(4), 789-807. https://doi.org/10.1515/euco-2017-0044
Manderscheid, K. (2014). Criticising the solitary mobile subject: Researching relational mobilities and reflecting on mobile methods. Mobilities, 9(2), 188–219. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2013.830406
Mills, M., & Blossfeld, H. P. (2006). Globalization, uncertainty and the early life course. In: Blossfeld, Klijzing, Mills & Kurz (eds.): Globalization, uncertainty and youth in society: the losers in a globalizing world, 1-23.
Möhring, K. (2016). Life course regimes in Europe: individual employment histories in comparative and historical perspective. Journal of European Social Policy, 26(2), 124-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928716633046
Nussbaum, M. (2000). Women and human development: the capabilities approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511841286
O'Reilly, J., Eichhorst, W., Gábos, A., Hadjivassiliou, K., Kurakova, L., Lain, D., Leschke, J., McGuiness, S., Nazio, T., Ortlieb R., Russell, H. & Villa, P. (2015). Five characteristics of youth unemployment in Europe: Flexibility, education, migration, family legacies, and EU policy. Sage Open, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015574962
Oxfam. (2016) Youth and Inequality: Time to support youth as agents of their own future. Oxfam Briefing Paper.
Powell, J. J., & Finger, C. (2013). The Bologna Process's Model of Mobility in Europe: the relationship of its spatial and social dimensions. European Educational Research Journal, 12(2), 270-285. https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2013.12.2.270
Robertson, S., Harris, A., & Baldassar, L. (2018). Mobile transitions: a conceptual framework for researching a generation on the move. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(2), 203-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2017.1362101
Robeyns, I. (2003). Sen's capability approach and gender inequality: Selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist Economics, 9(2-3), 61-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354570022000078024
Rodriguez, R. (2013). Action research with immigrants: working with vulnerable immigrant communities. In Routledge International Handbook of Migration Studies (pp. 578-589). Routledge.
Samuk, S., Nienaber, B., Bissinger, J. and Vysotskaya, V. (2018). MOVE Deliverable No. 6.7 – Final Public Project Report.
Schlimbach, H., Skrobanek, J., Kmiotek-Meier, E., Vysotskaya, V. (2019). Capturing agency in different educational settings. A comparative study on youth perceptions of mobility-framing structures. Migration Letters, 16(1), pp. 15-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.635
Sen, A. (1973). On economic inequality. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/0198281935.001.0001
Skrbis, Z., Woodward, I. & Bean, C. (2014). Seeds of cosmopolitan future? Young people and their aspirations for future mobility. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(5), 614-625. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.834314
Sorrentino, P. (2015). "Youth" (film)
Tevington, P. (2018). Privileged to worry: social class, cultural knowledge, and strategies toward the future among young adults. Sociological Quarterly, 59(2), 204-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380253.2017.1389251
UNESCO (2018). Youth Definition. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/ themes/youth/youth-definition/
United Nations General Assembly (2017). Sustainable Development Goals Report. Retrieved from https://unstats. un.org/sdgs/files/report/2017/thesustainabledevelopmentgoalsreport2017.pdf
Uteng, T. P., & Cresswell, T. (2016). Gendered mobilities: Towards an holistic understanding. In Uteng, T. P., & Cresswell, T. (eds.): Gendered Mobilities (pp. 15-26). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315584201
Van Mol, C., & Timmerman, C. (2014). 'Should I stay or should I go?' An analysis of the determinants of intra-European student mobility. Population, Space and Place, 20, 465–479. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1833
Vysotskaya, V. (2017). Is Luxembourg an attractive destination for European young workers for boosting their careers? The activation of young workers' skills in entering job markets abroad. Tér és Társadalom 14, 118-130.
Walther, A. (2001). Misleading trajectories: Transition dilemmas of young adults in Europe. Journal of Youth Studies, 4, 101–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260120028574
Walther, A. (2006). Regimes of youth transitions. Choice, flexibility and security in young people's experiences across different European contexts. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 14(2): 119–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/1103308806062737
White, S. (2007). Equality (key concepts). Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.
Windzio, M. (2013). Integration and inequality in educational institutions: an institutional perspective. In Windzio, M. (ed.): Integration and inequality in educational institutions (pp. 3-18). Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6119-3
Yoon, K. (2014). Transnational youth mobility in the neoliberal economy of experience. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(8), 1014-1028. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.878791