Why is it so hard? And for whom? Obstacles to intra-European mobility

Emilia Kmiotek-Meier, Jan Skrobanek, Birte Nienaber, Volha Vysotskaya, Sahizer Samuk, Tuba Ardic, Irina Pavlova, Zsuzsanna Dabasi-Halázs, Celia Diaz, Jutta Bissinger, Tabea Schlimbach, Klaudia Horvath

Abstract

Even though intra-European youth mobility is valued as a boost for personal and professional development, few opt for it. While obstacles preventing young people to become mobile have been discussed broadly, less attention has been paid to the obstacles for the youth who are already on the move. We offer this rare perspective in regard to intra-European mobility. We focus on youth in four types: pupil mobility, vocational (education and training) mobility, higher education student (degree and credit) mobility and employment mobility, in six countries: Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Norway, Romania and Spain. Our analysis, based on qualitative (140 interviews) and quantitative (N=1.682) data, reveals that the perceived obstacles vary between the mobility types, with the greatest divergence between the educational and work-related mobilities. Obstacles such as lack of financial resources and guidance, the perceived incompatibility of institutional regulations within Europe, are shared by all mobile youth.

Keywords

mobility; youth; obstacles; qualitative methods; quantitative methods; correspondence analysis; Europe

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