Structural framework conditions and individual motivations for youth-mobility: A macro-micro level approach for different European country-types

Karen Hemming, Tabea Schlimbach, Frank Tillmann, Birte Nienaber, Monica Roman, Jan Skrobanek

Abstract

European youth mobility seems to be fostering Europe’s unequal pace of integration, which sees certain countries benefit at the expense of others (Ohmacht et al., 2009; van Mol & Timmerman, 2014). Using a comparative approach, the paper aims to relate a macro-level country-typology focussing on human capital with individual mobility-motivations on the micro-level. Our methodological approach is based on a secondary macro-data analysis and analyses of mobility-motivations of young people (micro-data) deriving from qualitative (N=152) and quantitative data (N=5,499) collected in six European countries. In order to examine correspondence between macro-conditions and micro-aspects, we relate information on mobility-motivations to the country-typology by allocating mobile youth to the respective types of their home country. The results show that the country-types compose different opportunity structures, which are reflected in individual motivations. Accordingly, different country-types can be seen as an example of the heterogeneity and inequality of European social and territorial mobility frames.

Keywords

European youth mobility; micro-macro level approach; human capital; mobility motivations; multiple methods

Full Text:

PDF

References

Acharya, C. P. and Leon-Gonzalez, R. (2014). "How do migration and remittances affect human capital investment? The effects of relaxing information and liquidity constraints". Journal of Development Studies, 50 (3): 444-460. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2013.866224

Amelina, A. and Vasilache, A., 2014. "The shadows of enlargement: Theorising mobility and inequality in a changing Europe", Migration Letters, 11 (2): 109-124. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v11i2.233

Baláz, V., Williams, A. M. and Kollár, D. (2004). "Temporary versus permanent youth brain drain: Economic implications", International Migration, 42 (2): 3-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-7985.2004.00293.x

Basilio, L., Bauer, T. K. and Kramer, A. (2017). "Transferability of human capital and immigrant assimilation: An analysis for Germany", Labour, 31 (3), 245-264. https://doi.org/10.1111/labr.12096

Becker, G. (1975). Human capital (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bernard, H. R., Wutich, A. and Ryan, G. W. (2017). Analyzing qualitative data. Systematic approaches. Los Angeles: Sage.

Blossfeld, H.-P., Klijzing, E., Mills, M. and Kurz, K. (2005). Globalization, uncertainty and youth in society. London: Routledge.

Brannen, J. and Nilsen, A. (2005). "Individualisation, choice and structure: a discussion of current trends in sociological analysis", The Sociological Review, 53 (3): 412-428. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00559.x.

Buchholz, S., Hofäcker, D., Mills, M., Blossfeld, H-P., Kurz, K. and Hofmeister, H. (2009). "Life Courses in the Globalization Process: The Development of Social Inequalities in Modern Societies", European Sociological Review, 25 (1): 53-71. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcn033

Bynner, J. (2005). "Rethinking the Youth Phase of the Life-course: The Case for Emerging Adulthood?", Journal of Youth Studies, 8 (4): 367-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260500431628

Cairns, D. and Smyth, J. (2010). "Youth on the move? Student mobility and immobility in Portugal and Northern Ireland". In: D. Cairns (ed.): Youth on the move: European youth and geographical mobility, 59-70. Wiesbaden: VS. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92331-4_6

Clemens, M. (2007). "Do Visas Kill?", Working Paper, 114: Centre for Global Development.

Cruzes, D. S., Dybå, T., Runeson, P. and Höst, M. (2015). "Case studies synthesis. A thematic, cross-case, and narrative synthesis worked example", Empirical Software Engineering, 20 (6): 1634–1665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-014-9326-8

Deas, I. and Hincks, S. (2014). "Migration, Mobility and the Role of European Cities and Regions in Redistributing Population", European Planning Studies, 22 (12): 2561-2583. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2013.847062

Dewild, C. (2003). "A life-course perspective on social exclusion and poverty", British Journal of Sociology, 54 (1): 109-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007131032000045923

Docquier, F. and Rapoport, H. (2012). "Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development", Journal of Economic Literature, 50 (3): 681–730. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.50.3.681

Dodani, S. and Laporte, R. E. (2005). "Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain?", Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98 (11): 487–91. https://doi.org/10.1177/014107680509801107

Elder, G. H. (1985). "Perspectives on the life course". In: G. H. Elder (ed.) Life course dynamics: trajectories and transitions, 1968-1980: 23-49. New York: Cornell University Press.

Elder, G. H. (1995). "Life Trajectories in Changing Societies". In: A. Bandura (ed.) Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies, 46-68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527692.004

Evers, D. (2008). "Reflections on territorial cohesion and European Spatial Planning", Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 99 (3): 303-315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.2008.00463.x

Friedberg R. M. (2000). "You can't take it with you? Immigrant assimilation and the portability of human capital", Journal of Labor Economics, 18 (2): 221–251. https://doi.org/10.1086/209957

Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles. University of California Press.

Göler, D. and Köppen, B. (2015). "Gastarbeiter reloaded? Anmerkungen zur EU-Binnenwanderung in der Schuldenkrise. Ein Editorial", Berichte. Geographie und Landeskunde, 89 (1): 5-11.

Hemming, K., Tillmann, F. and Dettmer, M. (2016). Users' manual for D2.5 MOVE-Scientific Youth File (SUF): Youth mobility macro data for Europe. Part of the MOVE-project: Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility. Public Report. Halle (Saale): DJI. Available at: http://move-project.eu/reports-publications/ Database: http://dx.doi.org/10.7802/1653

Hemming, K., Tillmann, F., Reissig, B., Dabasi-Halász, Z., Nandori, E. S., Ilyés, C., Manafi, I., Marinescu, D. and Roman, M. (2016). "Conclusions and policy recommendations drawn out of the secondary macro-analysis in work package 2." In: K. Hemming, F. Tillmann and B. Reissig (eds.) Final Work Package Report WP2 "Sampling and secondary analyses of macro data of youth mobility in Europe and the partner countries". Part of the MOVE-project "Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility". Public Report: 138-147. Halle (Saale): DJI. Available at: http://move-project.eu/reports-publications/

Hunter, A. and Brewer, J. (2015). "Designing multi method research". In: S. Hesse-Biber and R. B. Johnson (eds.) Oxford handbook of mixed method and multi-method research: 185-205. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hurrelmann, K. and Quenzel, G. (2013) "Lost in transition: status insecurity and inconsistency as hallmarks of modern adolescence", International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 18 (5): 1-10.

Kan, K. (1999). "Expected and unexpected residential mobility", Journal of Urban Economics, 45: 72-96. https://doi.org/10.1006/juec.1998.2082

Kazlauskiene, A. and Rinkevicius, L. (2015). "Lithuanian "brain drain" causes: Push and pull factors", Engineering economics, 46 (1): 27-37.

Khwaja, Y. (2002). "Should I stay or should I go? Migration under uncertainty: a real options approach", Department of Economics and Finance Research Discussion Papers. Brunel University, 02-10: 1-32.

Kmiotek-Meier, E. and Karl, U. (2017). "Being forced? Getting far? Speaking the language? What matters in the process of going abroad as a student?", Tér És Társadalom [Space and Society], 31 (4): 90-104. https://doi.org/10.17649/TET.31.4.2889

Kmiotek-Meier, E., Skrobanek, J., Nienaber, B., Vysotskaya, V., Samuk, S., Ardic, T., Pavlova, I., Dabasi-Halázs, Z., Diaz, C., Bissinger, J., Schlimbach, T. and Horvath, K. (2019). "Why is it so hard? And for whom? Obstacles in the intra-EU mobility", Migration Letters, 16(1): 31-44. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.627

Manafi, I., Marinescu, D., Roman, M. and Hemming, K. (2017). "Mobility in Europe: Recent Trends from a Cluster Analysis", Amfiteatru Economic, 46 (19): 711-726.

Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis. A sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hills: Sage Publ.

Miles, S. (2000). Youth Lifestyles in a changing world. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Navarrete Moreno L., Lorenzo-Rodriguez, J., Diaz Chorne, L., Diaz Catalan, C., Suarez-Lledo, V., Fernandez Araiz, V., Cuenca Garcia, C., Pallares i Cardona, E., Zuniga, R., de Luxan, A., Skrobanek, J., Kmiotek-Meier, E., Hemming, K., Tillman, F., Manafi, I. and Marinescu, D. (2017). Deliverable D.4.7 - Public Work Package 4 Report. Part of the MOVE-project: Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility. Public Report. Madrid: ICN. Available at: http://move-project.eu/reports-publications/

OECD (2017). Understanding the socio-economic divide in Europe. Background report. Available at https://www.oecd.org/els/soc/cope-divide-europe-2017-background-report.pdf

Ohnmacht, T., Maksim, H. and Bergman, M. M. (2009). Mobilities and Inequalities. Farnham: Ashgate.

Panwinkler, T. and Schön, K. P. (2014). "Freizügigkeit und Migration in der EU", Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, 6: 497-516.

Reiter, H. and Schlimbach, T. (2015). "NEET in disguise? Rival narratives in troubled youth transitions", Educational Research, 57 (2): 133-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2015.1030851

Schlimbach, T., Skrobanek, J., Kmiotek-Meier, E. and Vysotskaya, V. (2019). "Capturing agency. A comparative approach to youth perceptions on mobility framing structures", Migration Letters, 16(1): 15-29. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v16i1.635

Sirkeci, I. and Cohen, J. (2016). "Cultures of Migration and Conflict in Contemporary Human Mobility in Turkey", European Review, 24 (3): 381-396. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798716000119

Sjaastad, L. (1962). "The costs and returns of human migration", Journal of Political Economy, 70: 80-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/258726

Smoliner, S., Förschner, M., Hochgerner, J. and Nová, J. (2013). "Comparative Report on Re-Migration Trends in Central and Eastern Europe", In: T. Lang (ed.): Return Migration in Central Europe: Current trends and an analysis of policies supporting returning migrants. IfL Forum 21: 11-57. Leipzig: Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde.

Tillmann, F., Skrobanek, J. and Hemming, K. (2016). "Heuristic causal mobility model based on macro-indicators", In K. Hemming, F. Tillmann and B. Reißig (eds.) Final Work Package Report WP2 "Sampling and secondary analyses of macro data of youth mobility in Europe and the partner countries". Part of the MOVE-project "Mapping mobility – pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility": 35-38. Public Report. Halle (Saale): DJI. Available at: http://move-project.eu/reports-publications/

Tung, R. L. and Lazarova, M. (2007). "Brain drain versus brain gain: an exploratory study of ex-host country nationals in Central and East Europe", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17 (11): 1853-1872. DOI: 10.1080/09585190600999992.

Van der Velde, M. (2012). "Boring European Borders?! Integration and Mobility across Borders", Eurasia Border Review, 3 (1): 115-125.

Van Mol, C. and Timmerman, C. (2014). "Should I Stay or Should I Go? An Analysis of the Determinants of Intra-European Student Mobility". Population, Space and Place, 20 (5): 465-479. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1833

Verwiebe, R., Teitzer, R. and Wiesbeck, L. (2014). "New forms of intra-European migration, labour market dynamics and social inequality in Europe", Migration Letters, 11 (2): 125-136. https://doi.org/10.33182/ml.v11i2.234

Wallerstein, I. (1974). The modern world system. Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world economy in the Sixteenth century. New York: Academic Press.

Walther, A. 2001. "Misleading trajectories: Transition dilemmas of young adults in Europe", Journal of Youth Studies, 4 (1): 101-118. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260120028574

Witzel, A. (2000). "Das problemzentrierte Interview", Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 1. Available at: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/%201132/2519.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.