The politics of 2011 riots in North London: How riots did not culminate into inter-ethnic conflict?

Olgu Karan

Abstract

While there has been a considerable research study into the causes and consequences of the 2011 riots and rioters' composition in terms of their class, ethnic origin and gender, there is much less on the shop-keepers perspectives on the August, 2011 riots in London. One of the consequence of this under-research area is little is known about how riots affect relationships between communities in multi-ethnic London. Based on forty interviews conducted with Kurdish and Turkish (KT) shop-owners and key persons from community organizations in North London, the findings of this study state that the theory of middleman minorities does not provide conceptual insight to explain the events. Rather, utilization of theory of framing sheds light upon the perceptions and actions of migrants from Turkey and inter-ethnic relationships in North London. This article argues that KT shopkeepers, community organizations and rioters managed to generate a shared consciousness during face-to-face encounters on the streets. The conscious efforts of shopkeepers and rioters constructed an interest alignment against government policy for cutting social programmes, economic deprivation, and police misconduct. To this end, members of ethnic groups prevented inter-ethnic conflict.

Keywords

Economic Crises;Turkish Shopkeepers; Community Organizations; 2011 Riots; Framing; London; Middleman-Minorities; Policing

Full Text:

PDF

References

Balkan Chronicle. (2011). Turkish shopkeepers protect streets from London rioters. Balkan Chronicle, August, 11. Available at http://www.balkanchronicle.com/index.php/world/world-news/europe/1310-turkish-shopkeepers-protect-streets-from-london-rioters (Date of access: 16/11/2011)

BBC. (2011). England rioters pooer, younger, less educated.BBC, October 24. Available at http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-15426720

Benford, R. D. and Snow, D. A. (2000). Framing Process and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26: 611-39

Bonacich, E. (1973). A theory of Middleman Minorities. American Sociological Review, 38: 583-594.

Bonacich, Edna and Modell, John. (1980). The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Castles, S., & Mark J. Miller. (1993). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. New York, The Guilford Press.

Daily Mail. (2011). We dont do water cannon; we rely on consent: May rules out tough action as vigilantes are forced to defend. Daily Mail, August, 9. Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2023932/London-riots-2011-Theresa-May-rules-tough-action-vigilantes-defend-shops.html (Date of access: 16/11/2011)

Dedeoglu, S. (2014). Migrants, Work and Social Integration: Women's Labour in the Turkish Ethnic Economy. London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Don, G. & Taylor H. (2015). The Peaks and Troughs of Societal Violence: Revisiting the Actions of Turkish and Kurdish Shopkeepers during the 2011 London Riots. Sociological Research Online, 20 (1), 4. Available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/20/1/4.html>

Erginkaya, C.K. (2012). Housing cooperatives as a tool of urban development in Adana. A MA thesis. Middle East Technical University: Ankara

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Boston, North Eastern University.

Gold, S.J. (2010). The Store in the Hood: A Century of Ethnic Business and Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Guardian. (2011). London riots: People are fighting back. Its their neighbourhoods at stake. Guardian, August, 10. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/aug/09/london-riots-fighting-neighbourhoods (Date of access: 04/11/2015)

Hackney Citizen. (2011). Turkish shopkeepers stand firm against rioters in Dalston. Hackney Citizen, August 9. Available at http://hackneycitizen.co.uk/2011/08/09/turkish-shopkeepers-stand-firm-rioters-dalston-hackney/ (Date of access: 04/11/2015)

Jordan, B, & Duvell, F. (2003). Migration: The Boundaries of Equality and Justice. Cambridge, Polity.

Jeffery, B. & Tufail, W. (2015). 'The riots were where the police were': Deconstructing the Pendelton Riot. Contention. The Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Protest, 2 (2), 37-56.

Karan, O. (2016). Collective Resource Mobilisation for Economic Survival within the Kurdish and Turkish Communities in London. Border Crossing, 6.2, 219-239

Karan, O. (2017). Economic Survival Strategies of Turkish Migrants in London. London: Transnational Press London.

Kesici, M.R. (2015). Londrada al??an Trkiyeli Gmenlerin al??ma Sreleri ve Sosyal ?li?ileri. In: Gven ?eker, Ali Tilbe, Mustafa kmen, P?nar Yazgan Hepgl, Deniz Ero?lu, Ibrahim Sirkeci. Turkish Migration Conference 2015 Selected Proceedings. London, Transnational Press London

Kim, K. C. (1999). Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans. Baltimore, MD, John Hopkins University Press.

Light, I., and Bonacich E. (1988). Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Koreans in Los Angeles. Los Angeles, University of California Press

Light, I., Hadas, Har-Chvi and Kenneth, K. (1994). Black/Korean conflict in Los Angeles. Ed. Seamus Dunn, in Managing Divided Cities. Keele, University of Keele

Light, I., and Karageorgis, S. (1994). The Ethnic Economy. In: Smelser, N.J. & Swedberg, R. (Editors), The Handbook of Economic Society. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 647-671.

McEvoy, D., & Hafeez, K. (2009). Ethnic enclaves or middleman minority?: Regional Patterns of Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 3.1, 94 -110.

Metropolitan Police Service. (2012). 4 Days in August: Strategic Review into the Disorder of August 2011.

Min, P.G. (1996). Caught in the Middle: Korean Communities in New York and Los Angeles. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Min, P.G. (2008). Ethnic Solidarity for Economic Survival: Korean Greengrocers in New York City. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Min, P.G. (2013). Middleman Entrepreneurs. In: Steven J. Gold & Stephanie J. Nawyn (EDS.), The Routledge International Handbook of Migration Studies, New York, Routledge, 145-153

Morrell, G., Scott, S., McNeish, D., Webster, S. (2011). The August Riots in England: Understanding the Involvement of Young People. London: NatCen. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/60531/The_20August_20Riots_20in_20England_20_pdf__201mb_.pdf (Date of access:28/09/2016)

Nwabuzo, O. (2012) The Riot Roundtables: Race and the riots of August 2011. London: Runnymede Report

Portes, A. & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 98, 1320 1350.

Roberts, and Lewis, P. (2011). Reading the Riots: Investigating England's summer of disorder. London: The Guardian. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/series/reading-the-riots ( Date of access: 10/09/2012)

Sirkeci, I., Bilecen, T., Co?tu, Y., Dedeo?lu, S., Kesici, M.R., ?eker, B.D., Tilbe, F., Unutulmaz, K.O. (2016). Little Turkey in Great Britain. London: Transnational Press London

Sowell, T. (1993). Middleman Minorities. The American Enterprise. May/June, 30-41

Zenner, W.P. (1991). Minorities in the Middle: A Cross Cultural Analysis.Albany: SUNY Press

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.