Border Crossing 2020-09-01T21:21:57+00:00 Border Crossing Open Journal Systems <p><a title="Border Crossing" href=""><em><img style="padding: 0 15px; float: left;" src="" alt="Border Crossing" height="200" /></em></a><strong>Border Crossing</strong> is an interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed international journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. Border Crossing is published twice a year in January-June and July-December. Articles are published online immediately as they are accepted and produced. The Journal follows a strict double-blind review policy embedded in our general <a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">publishing ethics</a> and supported by rigorous academic scrutiny of papers published.</p> <p><strong>Border Crossing</strong> is indexed and abstracted in: Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL) | China Academic Journals Database (CNKI Scholar) | EBSCO Academic Search international | ERIH PLUS (Erih Index) | Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals (NSD) | Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) | Border Crossing is also included in American Sociological Association's Publication Options Journal Directory. </p> <p class="smaller"><strong>Journal Founded:</strong> 2011<br /><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2046-4436 (Print) | <strong>ISSN:</strong> 2046-4444 (Online)<br /><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Two issues a year</p> <p><!-- Boxadds --></p> <p><a title="Most Read Articles in Border Crossing" href=""><strong>Most read articles in Border Crossing</strong></a></p> Integration of Displaced Syrians in Saudi Arabia 2020-06-03T08:11:19+00:00 Emina Osmandzikovic <p><em>The integration of displaced populations is primarily measured in singular variables. The focus mostly is on economic self-sufficiency or citizenship acquisition. The overall underperformance of the traditional relationship between displaced populations and their host-countries has given birth to a plethora of novel approaches. The idea is to reconcile the host-countries’ geo-economic interests with the needs of the displaced populations. This is also the case in some countries that are not signatories to the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol, such as Nigeria, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia. These countries have tried to integrate displaced populations in their national agendas, albeit with little input from the beneficiaries of such programs. As a non-signatory of the 1951 Refugee Convention, Saudi Arabia developed an alternative approach to the integration of displaced Syrians. It has demonstrated a wide area of coverage and adaptability, covering legal status, education, healthcare, employment, and social integration. This article provides an analysis of the government refugee programs, juxtaposed to topic modelling of semi-structured interviews conducted with displaced Syrians (n=21) within the Kingdom. The findings illustrate that, despite the comprehensive nature of the Saudi approach, which ensures socio-economic independence for displaced Syrians, the integration process from the viewpoint of the displaced populations suggest that integration remains a highly subjective and personal process.</em></p> 2020-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing The Ambivalence of Turkish Soft Power in Southeast Europe 2020-07-01T04:36:09+00:00 Ahmet Erdi Öztürk <p><em>With the instrumentalisation of Islam via the state apparatuses in foreign policy, Sunni Islam has become both an instrument and a purpose of the repressive Justice and Development Party and Turkey has started to be one of the front runners of countries who are increasingly competing for using Islam as a foreign policy tool. This relatively new role of Turkey has created various diverging ideas among the host countries where Turkey is active. While some countries are rather content with Turkey’s religiously fueled policies and humanitarian aid, and define Turkey as one of the most influential actors which can use religion as a soft power tool, others refuse to define Turkey’s policies within the boundaries of religious soft power due to its extra-territorial authoritarian practices and instrumentalisation of religion for these. Under these circumstances, this study defines Turkey’s religious soft power as an ambivalent one and scrutinises the reasons behind this ambiguity via exploring some country cases from Southeast Europe.</em></p> 2020-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing Comics and Translation with a Multimodal Perspective in the Early Republican Era 2020-07-16T11:22:25+00:00 Göksel Öztürk Aslı Özlem Tarakçıoğlu <p><em>Comics has a “hybrid” interaction emerging from the “interplay” between pictorial and textual elements. However; many studies on comics translation focus on texts but disregarding pictures. Analyses performed by focusing on textual elements disregard pictorial and textual interactions, which is a kind of regression of the multimodal aspect of comics. One of the aims of this article is to treat comics on its own autonomy since comics is generally considered as a tool of other research areas. The present study investigates the functions of pictures and texts in the context of “pictorial turn” by keeping multimodal approach in perspective. Translated comics to be analysed are the first translated comic strips into Turkish after the alphabet reform. The very first concealed translations of comics during the Early Republican Era are analysed with a multimodal perspective considering historical context as well as cross-media interactions of pictures and texts. As the first Turkish translations of comics were published in children’s periodicals in the early Republican era, this article practices on multiple layers such as transformation of media, culture planning, and manipulation.</em></p> 2020-07-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing A Judicial Review of the De Facto Detention of Foreigners in Turkey 2020-08-18T22:03:11+00:00 Gamze Ovacik <p><em>The term, de facto detention, refers to instances in which foreigners are held or deprived of their liberty usually with a view to preventing their entry into a country or expelling them from a country, but without implementing a legally prescribed detention regime that satisfies the criteria of the rule of law. The first type of de facto detention occurs when provisions regulating detention are absent or deficient in the legal framework. The second type takes place when domestic law sufficiently regulates detention regimes; however, the law is not duly implemented in practice. This article examines judicial practices in Turkey in both categories of de facto detention, analysing 37 Turkish court decisions with supporting case law from the European Court of Human Rights. Focusing on case law makes it possible both to track deficiencies in administrative practices and to analyse judicial response as a tool for rectifying unlawful administrative practices.</em></p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing Fleeing from the Global Compact for Migration: A missed opportunity for Italy 2020-09-01T21:21:57+00:00 Chiara Scissa <p><em>This article examines the reasons that in December 2018 led both the Italian Parliament and Government to refrain from the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which first Italy promoted as a way to revitalize the European Union’s solidarity and coordination, while lessening the uneven burden of migratory inflows into the country. Although it has been argued that ‘the opposition to the Compact has propagandistic objectives, that cannot be negotiated away’ (Gatti, 2018, p. 1) this article aims to demonstrate the wide socio-economic and political benefits that the Global Compact will bring to Italy if adopted, as well as the gains that an instrument of international migration governance will bring to national migration policy. This contribution also highlights the opportunities that the Global Compact offers for a truly common European approach to migration.</em></p> 2020-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing The Story of Josef Lainck: From German Emigrant to Alien Convict and Deported Criminal to Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Inmate 2020-08-18T21:59:01+00:00 Grant W. Grams <p><em>Josef Lainck, a German national emigrated to Canada in July 1927. He arrived in Quebec City and travelled west to Edmonton, Alberta where he became a burglar and shot a police officer. Lainck was arrested in November 1927 and deported to Germany in 1938, upon arrival he was arrested and interned in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp until April 1945. This article will examine Lainck’s emigration to Canada, arrest and deportation to Nazi Germany. Lainck’s case is illuminating as it reveals information on deportations from Canada and the Third Reich’s return migration program and how undesirables were treated within Germany. The Third Reich’s return migration plan encouraged returnees to seek their deportations as a method of return. Canadian extradition procedures cared little for the fate of foreign nationals expatriated to the country of their birth regardless of the form of government or the turmoil that plagued the nation. This work will compare Canadian to American deportation rates as an illustration of Canada’s harsh deportation criterion. In this article, the policies and practices of immigration and deportation are discussed within a framework of insecurity as a key driver for human mobility in the first half of the 20th century.</em></p> 2020-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Border Crossing