Agency and Structure Revisited with Youth Responses to Gendered (Spatial) Mobilities in the EU
Keywords:youth mobility, gender roles, beliefs, agency, structure, gendered mobility
Young people involved in geographical mobility face diverse gendered mobility settings and gender inequalities. How do the youth involved in diverse mobility types deal with adverse circumstances caused by gender beliefs and gender prejudices? To answer this question, problem-centred interviews with young people (18-29) are analysed using Grounded Theory. These young people are European citizens and they are involved in five mobility types: higher education, employment, voluntary work, vocational education & training, and entrepreneurship. We apply Emirbayer and Mische’s (1998) categories (iterational, projective and practical-evaluative) to the analysis of gendered mobility narratives as unequal gender perceptions reveal themselves in the context of different types of youth mobility. The analysis allows to see the ways young people reflect on their actions: refusal of gender beliefs, acceptance or rejection of gendered prejudices, individual vs. collective solutions, demand for equality in numbers, comparison of gendered workplaces and assumption of leadership in initiating mobility. At the same time, we observe how geographical mobilities can increase the critical sensibility of youth towards gender inequalities, contributing to new conceptualisation of agentic responses to structural constraints.
Ackers, L. (2004). Managing relationships in peripatetic careers: Scientific mobility in the European Union. Women's Studies International Forum, 27(3): 189-201. Pergamon. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.wsif.2004.03.001
Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 30(5): 595-621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00138.x
Andall, J. (2013). Gendered Mobilities and Work in Europe: An Introduction. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39 (4): 525-534. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2013.745229
Charmaz, K., Smith, J. A., Harre, R., & Van Langenhove, L. (1995). Rethinking methods in psychology. Grounded Theory. London, UK: Sage.
Cohen, J.H. & Sirkeci, I. (2011). Cultures of migration: The global nature of contemporary mobility. Austin: University of Texas Press.
De Regt, Marina. (2010). Ways to Come, Ways to Leave. Gender, Mobility and Il/legality among Ethiopian Domestic Workers in Yemen. Gender and Society, 24(2): 237-260. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0891243209360358
Deliverable N° D3.5. (2018) Patterns of youth mobility: results from the qualitative case studies. Integrated public report. A. Altissimo, A. Bartels, A. Herz, & W. Schröer (Eds.). Available at: http://move-project.eu/fileadmin/move/downloads/MOVE_D3_5.pdf
Donato, K. M., Gabaccia, D., Holdaway, J., Manalansan, IV.M. and Pessar, P.R. (2006). A glass half full? Gender in migration studies. International Migration Review, 40(1): 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00001.x
Dwyer, C. (2018). Introduction: gendered mobilities and transnational identities. Gender, Place & Culture, 25(1): 80-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2017.1414035
Emirbayer, M.& Mische, A. (1998). What is agency? American Journal of Sociology, 103(4): 962-1023. https://doi.org/10.1086/231294
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (2010). Grounded theory. Huber.
González Ramos, A. M. & Bosch, N.V. (2013). International mobility of women in science and technology careers: shaping plans for personal and professional purposes. Gender, Place & Culture, 20(5): 613-629. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2012.701198
Green, N. L. (2012). Changing paradigms in migration studies: From men to women to gender. Gender & History, 24(3): 782-798. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.2012.01706.x
Green, N.L. (2015). Gender and Migration: History and Historiography. In Luconi, S., & Varricchio, M. (Eds.), Lontane da casa: Donne italiane e diaspora globale dall'inizio del Novecento a oggi. Torino: Accademia University Pres. Doi:10.4000/books.accademia.
Hanson, S. (2010). Gender and mobility: new approaches for informing sustainability. Gender, Place & Culture, 17(1): 5-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/09663690903498225
Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2000) Feminism and Migration. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 571: 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271620057100108
Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2011) Gender and Migration Scholarship: An Overview from a 21st Century Perspective. Migraciones Internacionales, 6(1): 219-233.
Iredale, R. (2005). Gender, immigration policies and accreditation: Valuing the skills of professional women migrants. Geoforum, 36(2): 155-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.04.002
Kaufmann, V., Bergman, M. M., & Joye, D. (2004). Motility: mobility as capital. International journal of urban and regional research, 28(4): 745-756. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00549.x
King, R. (2018). Theorising new European Youth Mobilities. Population, Space and Place, 24(1): e2117. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2117
King, R., Lulle, A., Morosanu, L., & Williams, A. (2016). International youth mobility and life transitions in Europe: Questions, definitions, typologies and theoretical approaches. Working Paper No.86. Sussex Centre for Migration Research.
Kofman, E. (2012). Gender and skilled migration in Europe/Género y migración cualificada en Europa. Cuadernos de relaciones laborales, 30(1): 63-89. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_CRLA.2012.v30.n1.39115
Lutz, H. (2015). Intersectionality as method. Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies, 2(1-2): 39-44. https://doi.org/10.11116/jdivegendstud.2.1-2.0039
Man, G. (2004, June). Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women's studies international forum. 27(2): 135-148. Pergamon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif. 2004.06.004
Marchetti, S. & Salih,R. (2017). Policing gender mobilities: interrogating the 'feminisation of migration'to Europe. International Review of Sociology, 27(1): 6-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/03906701.2017.1303966
McDowell, L. (2002). Transitions to work: masculine identities, youth inequality and labour market change. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 9(1): 39-59. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 09663690120115038
Mcdowell, L. (2017). Youth, children, and families in austere times: change, politics and a new gender contract. Area, 49(3): 311-316. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12255
Metz-Göckel, S., & Morokvasić, M. (2008). Migration and mobility in an enlarged Europe: a gender perspective (p. 304). S. Münst (Ed.). Opladen, DE and Farmington Hills, USA: Barbara Budrich Publishers. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvhktj2x
Morokvasic, M. (1984). Birds of Passage are also Women. The International Migration Review, 18(4): 886-907. https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838401800402
Morokvasic, M. (2004). 'Settled in mobility': engendering post-wall migration in Europe. Feminist review, 77(1): 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400154
National Youth Council of Slovenia (2011) Youth Mobility. Policy Paper. MSS-124(11): 1-17.
Nisic, N. & Melzer, S.M. (2016). Explaining Gender Inequalities That Follow Couple Migration. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(4): 1063-1082. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12323
Nowicka, M., & Ryan, L. (2015, May). Beyond Insiders and Outsiders in Migration Research: Rejecting A Priori Commonalities. Introduction to the FQS Thematic Section on" Researcher, Migrant, Woman: Methodological Implications of Multiple Positionalities in Migration Studies". Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 16(2), Art. 18
Pessar, P. R., & Mahler, S. J. (2003). Transnational migration: Bringing gender in. International Migration Review, 37(3): 812-846. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00159.x
Piper, N. (2006). Gendering the politics of migration. International Migration Review, 40(1): 133-164. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00006.x
Ridgeway, C. L. & Correll, S.J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender & Society, 18(4): 510-531. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0891243204265269
Robeyns, I. (2003). Sen's capability approach and gender inequality: selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist economics, 9(2-3): 61-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354570022000078024
Rose, S. O. (2010). What is gender history?. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Ryan, L. & Mulholland, J. (2014). 'Wives are the route to social life': An analysis of family life and networking amongst highly skilled migrants in London. Sociology, 48(2): 251-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0038038512475109
Scheibelhofer, E. (2005). A reflection upon interpretive research techniques: The problem-centred interview as a method for biographic research. University of Huddersfield.
Uteng, T. P. & Creswell, T. (2016). Gendered mobilities: towards an holistic understanding. Gendered Mobilities. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315584201
West, C. & Fenstermaker, S. (1995). Doing difference. Gender & Society, 9(1): 8-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 089124395009001002
West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender & society, 1(2): 125-151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002.
Witzel, A. & Reiter, H. (2012). The problem-centred interview. London: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/ 9781446288030
Woolf, V. (1929). A room of One's Own. London: Hoghart Press.
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Transnational Press London